The Working Paper reviews the European Union’s efforts for political integration of the post-communist states that joined in the 2004-2007 enlargement. It traces the EU’s focus on different democratic institutions, as it evolved from minority problems to rule of law and the struggle against corruption and highlights different modes and tools of political integration, and focuses on the tools and modes of integration used specifically in the cases of Bulgaria and Romania. Reviewing key contributions of this debate, the limitations of the EU’s approach, especially with regard to the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism used with Bulgaria and Romania, are highlighted.
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