|General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE)|
The General Self-Efficacy Scale is a 10-item psychometric scale that is designed to assess optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life. The scale has been originally developed in German by Matthias Jerusalem and Ralf Schwarzer in 1981 and has been used in many studies with hundred thousands of participants. In contrast to other scales that were designed to assess optimism, this one explicitly refers to personal agency, i.e., the belief that one's actions are responsible for successful outcomes. Perceived self-efficacy is a prospective and operative construct. See FAQ and other resources below.
The scale is currently available in 32 languages. Select the desired version here.
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions (pdf)
Resources for Download here (htm)
SPSS RAW DATA WITH 18,000 Participants: DOWNLOAD *.SAV File
More psychometric scales at:
Impressum Designed and programmed by Ralf Schwarzer. Last update 14 February 2012