General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE)

The General Self-Efficacy Scale is a 10-item psychometric scale that is designed to assess optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life. The scale has been originally developed in German by Matthias Jerusalem and Ralf Schwarzer in 1981 and has been used in many studies with hundred thousands of participants. In contrast to other scales that were designed to assess optimism, this one explicitly refers to personal agency, i.e., the belief that one's actions are responsible for successful outcomes. Perceived self-efficacy is a prospective and operative construct. See FAQ and other resources below.

The scale is currently available in 32 languages. Select the desired version here.

Arabic Chinese Czech Dutch English French
German Greek Hebrew Hungarian Indonesian Italian
Japanese Korean Persian Polish Rumanian Russian
Slovakian Spanish Turkish Portuguese Hindi Norwegian
Danish Swedish Bulgarian Armenian Urdu (Pakistan) Slovenian
Serbian Brazilian

FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions (pdf)

Resources for Download here (htm)

SPSS RAW DATA WITH 18,000 Participants: DOWNLOAD   *.SAV File

More psychometric scales at: 

Impressum Designed and programmed by Ralf Schwarzer. Last update 14 February 2012