Generalized Perceived Self-Efficacy

The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale is a 10-item psychometric scale that is designed to assess optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life. The scale has been originally developed in German by Matthias Jerusalem and Ralf Schwarzer in 1981 and has been used in many studies with thousands of participants. In contrast to other scales that were designed to assess dispositional optimism, this one explicitly refers to personal agency, i.e., the belief that one's actions are responsible for successful outcomes.

The scale is now available in 21 languages. Select the desired version here.
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Schwarzer, R. (Ed.) (1992). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.

For further references see the preprint:
Cross-Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale. "

Last Update: 03.11.99.