General Perceived Self-Efficacy in 14 Cultures

Ralf Schwarzer

Freie Universitšt Berlin

General perceived self-efficacy pertains to optimistic beliefs about being able to cope with a large variety of stressors. In contrast to other constructs of optimism, perceived self-efficacy explicitly refers to one’s competence to deal with challenging encounters. It is measured with a parsimonious ten-item scale that was developed for use across cultures. The research question aims at the cross-cultural equivalence of multiple adaptations of this instrument. The present paper compares the language-specific adaptations that were examined in 14 cultures from all over the world. A total of 12,840 individuals responded to the instrument. The unidimensional nature of the scale was replicated in all samples, using reliability analyses as well as exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Self-efficacy differences between the 14 cultures are discussed.

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Sum Score Distribution 
14 Country Comparison

   Last Update: 03.11.99