This page includes currently 51 selected abstracts of journal articles.

Optimism, goals, and threats: How to conceptualize self-regulatory processes in the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors.
Schwarzer, R. (1998, in press).
Psychology and Health.
ABSTRACT How individuals control themselves and their health behaviors can be better understood by examining their self-beliefs in terms of threats and goals. The distinction between self-regulatory threat appraisals and self-regulatory goal attainment my help to explain when individuals fall prey to defensive optimism and when they are guided by functional optimism. To underscore the notion of process-specific self-beliefs, a further distinction is made between goal-setting self-efficacy, action self-efficacy, coping self-efficacy, and recovery self-efficacy. Click here for HAPA model.

Assessment of optimistic self-beliefs on the Internet: Data collection in cyberspace.
Schwarzer, R., Mueller, J., & Greenglass, E. (1998, in press).
Anxiety, Stress, and Coping. An International Journal.
ABSTRACT General perceived self-efficacy pertains to optimistic beliefs about being able to cope with a large variety of stressors. It is measured with a ten-item scale that has proven useful in cross-cultural research. Previous findings suggest that the construct is universal and applies to the majority of cultures worldwide. The present investigation adds a new facet to it: Can it be measured as part of interactive computer sessions while surfing the Internet? A total of 1,437 computer users responded to a survey on the web, half of them young men and women below the age of 26. Data were compared to 290 Canadian university students, 274 German teachers, and 3,077 German high school students. It turned out that all psychometric characteristics were satisfactory. Some evidence for validity emerged. It is suggested that innovative methods of data collection are considered when developing a psychometric scale. Click here for more detailed research findings on the scale.

Coping as a mediator in recovery from heart surgery: A longitudinal study.
Schröder, K., Schwarzer, R., & Konertz, (1998).
Psychology & Health, 13, (1)  83-97.
ABSTRACT Recovery from surgery can be facilitated by adaptive coping or it can be inhibited by maladaptive coping. Coping itself can be influenced by personal and social coping resources. Within a longitudinal design, 174 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were surveyed before the event and interviewed afterwards. Presurgical personal and social resources, such as optimistic self-beliefs and social support, where examined along with social and ruminative ways of coping in terms of a variety of recovery outcomes. Worry, emotional states, mental and physical activity were chosen as indicators of recovery. It was found that personal and social resources predicted recovery and that coping mediated resources and readjustment. Covariance structure analysis revealed that seeking social support was an adaptive way of coping. It was positively associated with agency beliefs and recovery indicators, whereas rumination was negatively associated with outcomes.

Optimistic self-beliefs: Assessment of general perceived self-efficacy in thirteen cultures.
Schwarzer, R., & Born, A. (1998, in press).
World Psychology.
ABSTRACT General perceived self-efficacy pertains to optimistic beliefs about being able to cope with a large variety of stressors. In contrast to other constructs of optimism, perceived self-efficacy explicitly refers to one’s competence to deal with challenging encounters. It is measured with a parsimonious ten-item scale that was developed for use across cultures. The research question aims at the cross-cultural equivalence of multiple adaptations of this instrument. The present paper compares the language-specific adaptations that were examined in 13 cultures from all over the world. A total of 12,840 individuals responded to the instrument. The unidimensional nature of the scale was replicated in all samples, using reliability analyses as well as exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Self-efficacy differences between the 13 cultures are discussed. Click here for updated FULL PAPER.

Predicting cardiac patients' quality of life from the characteristics of their spouses.
Schröder, K. E. E., Schwarzer, R., & Endler, N. S. (1997).
Journal of Health Psychology
, 2 (2), 231-244.
ABSTRACT Recovery from surgery can be facilitated by personal and social resources, such as optimistic self-beliefs and social support. Moreover, the existence of a social network and the behavior of its members can also have a positive effect. Patients (N = 381; 302 men, 79 women) undergoing heart surgery were surveyed once before and twice after their surgery. In addition, 114 social network members (18 men, 96 women), most of them spouses, reported about their own perceived resources at Time 1. It turned out that characteristics of spouses were related to patient characteristics. Recovery from surgery at Time 2 and readjustment to normal life after half a year (Time 3) could be partly predicted by spouses' perceived social support and optimistic self-beliefs (Time 1).

Psychosocial correlates of substance use: Comparing high school students with incarcerated offenders in Hong Kong.
Wong, C. S. Y., Tang, C. S. K., & Schwarzer, R. (1997).
Journal of Drug Education, 27(2), 147-172.
Abstract Drug use prevalence data were obtained from 969 adolescents, high school students and imprisoned offenders who reported use of cough medicine, organic solvents, cannabis, heroin, tranquilizers, and narcotics over the past six months. Incarcerated youths, in particular girls, had higher prevalence rates than students. Drug use frequencies were associated with psychosocial variables such as disinhibition, peer drug use, susceptibility to peer pressure, attitudes, encouragement by peers, and perceived availability of drugs. The psychosocial process of the initiation and maintenance of substance use was specified as a path model that considered personality and social environment as distal precursors and a drug-use predisposition and perceived availability as proximal precursors of three kinds of outcome variables: drug use, the intention to try illicit drugs if they were legal, and adverse outcomes of drug use. It was found that the same structural equation model fitted the data of both samples of offenders and students, however, with very different weights assigned to the pathes.

The assessment of optimistic self-beliefs: Comparison of the German, Spanish, and Chinese versions    of   the General Self-efficacy Scale.
 Schwarzer,-Ralf; Bässler,-Judith; Kwiatek,-Patricia; Schröder,-Kerstin; et-al
 Applied-Psychology-An-International-Review;1997 Jan Vol 46(1) 69-88.
ABSTRACT Compares 3 versions of a 10-item General Self-efficacy Scale that was developed for use in several cultures in samples of 430 German, 959 Costa Rican, and 293 Chinese (Hong Kong) university students. Results show satisfactory psychometric properties in all 3 languages. Reliability, item-total correlations, and factor loadings indicate that the scale can be seen as homogenous and unidimensional, and that the self-efficacy construct tends to be universal.

Anticipating stress in the community: Worries about the future of Hong Kong.
 Schwarzer,-Ralf; Chung,-Robert
 Anxiety,-Stress-and-Coping-An-International-Journal;1996 Jul Vol 9(2) 163-178.
ABSTRACT Examined worry about the future after the transition of Hong Kong from British to Chinese rule in 1997, especially the degree to which it is appraised as a challenge, threat, or benefit. Two samples of Ss responded to the same set of variables measuring threat/worry, challenge/self-efficacy, and benefit responses to the transition. A random sample of 501 Hong Kong citizens (aged 18-81 yrs) responded to a telephone survey, while 293 undergraduates completed questionnaires during class time. About half the random sample voiced concerns about their future by acknowledging that they were preoccupied with thoughts about life later, that they perceived a serious threat, and that they worried. About 80% of the students were not or hardly concerned about the issue. More than half disagreed with the notion that the political changes would pose a serious threat, and one-third also disagreed with the worry items. Possible reasons for the students' lack of concern are discussed.

Social bonding and loneliness after network disruption: A longitudinal study of East German refugees.
  Jerusalem,-Matthias; Hahn,-Andre; Schwarzer,-Ralf
  Social-Indicators-Research;1996 Jul Vol 38(3) 229-243.
ABSTRACT Examined the social integration and loneliness in East Germans and refugees following migration to West Germany and determined the presence of age and sex differences. 235 13-67 yr olds were interviewed 3 times during the 2 yrs following their transition to West Berlin. Social bonding was measured by the number of friends they met since they arrived and whether these were men or women. Loneliness was measured by the German adaptation of the UCLA loneliness scale (D. Russell et al, 1984). Results showed that the number of new friends increased steadily, and loneliness declined. Men made more friends than women, in particular same-sex friends, whereas women knitted ties with both sexes. The young built larger networks than the intermediate age group. Loneliness emerged as an inhibiting factor in the bonding process.

Measuring optimistic self-beliefs: A Chinese adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale.
 Zhang,-Jian-Xin; Schwarzer,-Ralf
Psychologia-An-International-Journal-of-Psychology-in-the-Orient, 1995 Sep Vol 38(3) 174-181.
ABSTRACT Constructed and tested a Chinese version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Using a sample of 293 university students, the internal consistency was .91. The scale was also completed by a bilingual sample of 43 Chinese students who filled out the English version followed, 3 wks later, by the Chinese version. The lagged correlation between both versions was .71. Further psychometric properties are described that underscore the usefulness of the inventory. It was found that men scored on average higher in general self-efficacy than women, which is in line with results from previous samples. Preliminary norms are given to encourage further field testing of this scale.

Stability of coping in Hong Kong medical students: A longitudinal study.
 Stewart,-Sunita-M.; Schwarzer,-Ralf
 Personality-and-Individual-Differences;1996 Feb Vol 20(2) 245-255.
ABSTRACT Explored self-reported coping preferences of 121 ethnic Chinese 1st year medical students. Ss were assessed during registration week (Time 1) and 8 mo later (Time 2). Beyond the description of mean differences, several methodological issues of coping assessment were raised, in particular the issues of stability, generality, and dimensionality of psychometric scales to measure coping. The stability over time was very low, which might be seen as evidence for more situation-dependent than personality-dependent coping. In principal component analyses, different coping dimensions emerged at Time 1 and Time 2. In regression analyses, subsequent coping strategies could hardly be predicted by antecedent coping strategies. Data suggest that coping assessment might be of limited value when done in a trait-like manner. Situation-oriented coping assessment strategies might be more valid.

Psychosocial differences between occasional and regular adolescent users of marijuana and heroin.
 Tang,-Catherine-S.-K.; Wong,-Connie-S.-Y.; Schwarzer,-Ralf
 Journal-of-Youth-and-Adolescence;1996 Apr Vol 25(2) 219-239. 
ABSTRACT Investigated personality and social antecedents of occasional and regular use of marijuana and heroin among 969 adolescents in Hong Kong, 40.2% being incarcerated delinquents. Most of the Ss were school students, with a mean age of 15.87 yrs for boys and 15.84 yrs for girls whereas in the delinquent sample, the overall mean age was 17.32 yrs. Self-report questionnaires measured variables that included personal, peer, and family drug use, as well as susceptibility to peer pressure and sensation seeking. Drug use frequencies were highly associated with psychosocial variables such as sensation seeking, peer drug use, family drug use, susceptibility to peer pressure, perceived control to gain access to drugs, intention to try other substances, and perceived adverse consequences of drug use. The exclusive use of marijuana was associated with high susceptibility to peer pressure and with perceived control to gain access to drugs.

A window on the self: Reconstructing thought processes to understand human action.
Psychology-and-Health;1995 Jun Vol 10(4) 285-289.
ABSTRACT Endorses J. Ogden's  analysis of how researchers see individuals through the eyes of a changing profession and how researchers constitute the individual through their theoretical contemplation and preferred research methods. Ogden's historical analysis may suffer from the fact that the formal discipline of health psychology was nonexistent 2 decades ago. Putting the self on stage has turned out to be a timely shift in attention. Health psychology must be interested in alterable variables found to guide human action. Individuals are not seen as being merely involved in a sequence of person-situation interactions, but are conceived of as competent decision-makers who set goals for themselves and control their action more or less successfully.

Social integration and social support in a life crisis: Effects of macrosocial change in East Germany.
 Schwarzer,-Ralf; Hahn,-Andre; Schroder,-Harry
American-Journal-of-Community-Psychology;1994 Oct Vol 22(5) 685-706.
ABSTRACT Conducted a longitudinal study to examine the psychological readaptation process in 171 men and 247 women (aged 18-67 yrs) from the former East Germany after the reunification of East and West Germany. Some indicators of social changes of migrants ( n = 216) compared to nonmigrants ( n = 206) were available. At 3 points in time over 2 yrs, both groups reported on their social bonding and social support. Migrants readjusted well by making new friends. In particular, young men were socially active. More same-sex than opposite-sex friendships were established. The group of young migrants reported having received the most support, in particular when they had a partner. Anticipated support, in contrast, was highest for young single women who did not migrate.

The multidimensional nature of received social support in gay men at risk of HIV infection and AIDS.
 Schwarzer,-Ralf; Dunkel-Schetter,-Christine; Kemeny,-Margaret
American-Journal-of-Community-Psychology;1994 Jun Vol 22(3) 319-339.
ABSTRACT Examined the construct of received social support in gay men at risk of HIV and AIDS. Distinctions were made among 3 types (informational, tangible, emotional), 4 sources (friends, relatives, partner, organizations), and 3 dimensions (amount, satisfaction, reciprocity) of support. A 24-item inventory reflecting these distinctions was administered to 587 gay men (aged 22-58 yrs) at 2 points in time. The psychometric properties of the instrument were determined, and the factor structure was tested by varying sources and types of social support. This was done by exploratory as well as by confirmatory factor analyses. The hypothesized structure was confirmed in both waves separately. Results corroborate the assumption that enacted or received social support is a highly differentiated construct and requires assessment tools that are designed accordingly. Descriptive results of Ss' support perceptions are presented.

Reemployment after migration from East to West Germany: A longitudinal study on psychosocial factors.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Hahn,-Andre
Applied-Psychology-An-International-Review;1995 Jan Vol 44(1) 77-93.
ABSTRACT 126 men (mean age 31 yrs) and 109 women (mean age 32 yrs) who were East-German immigrants were interviewed 3 times in the 2 yrs after their transition to West Berlin in 1989. Ss completed a questionnaire that measured employment status, duration, and unemployment expectancies, stress appraisals, social support, health complaints, and personality variables. Ss with higher expectations were more successful in gaining a job, and women were less likely to expect reemployment than were men. Expectancies were independent of dispositional optimism and other personality traits. Initial expectancies and illness were the major predictors of employment duration, and illness operated through stress appraisals and social support at the 2nd interview. Thus, Ss' expectancies were based on factors other than psychological ones, and illness reduced the likelihood of reemployment, partly through increased stress and decreased social support.
 Selbstwirksamkeit zur sportlichen Aktivitat: Reliabilitat und Validitat eines neuen Me(sinstruments. (Self-efficacy toward physical exercise: Reliability and validity of a new instrument.)
Fuchs,-Reinhard; Schwarzer,-Ralf
Zeitschrift-fur-Differentielle-und-Diagnostische-Psychologie;1994 Sep Vol 15(3) 141-154.
ABSTRACT Describes the development and validation of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES), a German-language instrument for assessing the belief that 1 is capable of sticking to an exercise program, even under unfavorable circumstances. The scale was tested in a sample of 1,336 normal male and female German adult participants in a longitudinal study on health behaviors. Results indicate that the ESES has satisfactory internal consistency and correlates positively with generalized self-efficacy, self-efficacy concerning other health behaviors, and intentions regarding physical exercise. The scale correlates negatively with indicators of mental and physical distress, and discriminates between physically active and physically inactive persons.

Alcohol consumption in a time of macrosocial stress: Migration, social isolation, and anger as risk factors.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Schroder,-Kerstin; Schroder,-Harry
Anxiety,-Stress-and-Coping-An-International-Journal;1994 Aug Vol 7(2) 173-184.
ABSTRACT Studied psychosocial changes (as indicated by alcohol consumption) in East Germans during the collapse of the communist system. 214 East Germans (111 men, 103 women) who migrated to West Berlin were assessed at 3 time points over 2 yrs and compared with 224 East Germans (163 women, 61 men) who did not migrate. At study onset, all Ss were 17-66 yrs old. Women drank almost no alcohol, whereas men indicated disparate drinking habits depending on various risk factors, including social integration. Migrating men reduced their alcohol consumption after resettlement. Trait anger emerged as a risk factor, except for men after resettlement.

Optimism, vulnerability, and self-beliefs as health-related cognitions: A systematic overview. 
Psychology-and-Health;1994 Apr Vol 9(3) 161-180.
ABSTRACT Distinguishes between defensive and functional optimism in order to address various health-related cognitions. Research on biases in risk perception and vulnerability is presented, and it is shown that most people make unrealistic assumptions when predicting their susceptibility to diseases. Various constructs are then presented that could be collapsed under the label functional optimism. These include optimistic explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and self-efficacy. Empirical findings are presented that underscore the health-promoting effect of favorable self-beliefs and of a positive outlook on life. It is argued that further specifications are needed to disentangle agency-related from situation-related components of optimism. The question is considered regarding to what degree health-related cognitions have to be realistic, or whether illusions can be adaptive and healthy.

Ein neues Leben mit neuen Freunden: Zum Prozess der sozialen Integration bei Ubersiedlern aus der DDR. / A new life with new friends: The process of social integration in immigrants from the GDR.
Auhagen,-Ann-E.; Schwarzer,-Ralf
Zeitschrift-fur-Entwicklungspsychologie-und-Padagogische-Psychologie;1994 Vol 26(2) 166-184.
ABSTRACT Studied social integration processes in East Germans who immigrated to West Germany shortly after the opening of the Berlin Wall in the fall of 1989. Ss were 126 male (mean age 31 yrs) and 109 female East German adolescents and adults (mean age 32 yrs) immigrating to West Germany. Ss' completed questionnaires assessing the number and sex of their friends, their social support resources, and their degrees of loneliness at 3 points in time: the fall or winter of 1989-1990, the summer of 1990, and the summer of 1991. Changes in these parameters were analyzed in relation to Ss' age, gender, and sociodemographic characteristics. Several German-language instruments, including a German version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell et al, 1980), were used.

Optimistische Kompetenzerwartung: Zur Erfassung einer personellen Bewaltigungsressource. / Generalized self-efficacy: Assessment of a personal coping resource.
Diagnostica;1994 Vol 40(2) 105-123.
ABSTRACT Describes the psychometric properties of a German-language scale for assessing generalized self-efficacy (GSE), a stable personality characteristic that reflects an individual's belief that he or she can cope with difficult demands. The 10-item scale has been used to assess perceptions of GSE in a wide range of empirical studies, including research on stress, psychosocial adaptation, and health beliefs. Results support the validity and reliability of the scale, revealing that GSE correlates positively with optimism, self-esteem, internal control and achievement motivation and negatively with anxiety, depression, and neuroticism.

Screening for mental health problems after neurotoxic exposure: Brief psychometric scales. Bowler,-Rosemarie-M.; Schwarzer,-Ralf; Mergler,-Donna; Rauch,-Stephen-S.
European-Journal-of-Psychological-Assessment;1992 Vol 8(2) 99-108.
ABSTRACT Conducted 3 studies to derive very short MMPI subscales that may prove useful for rapid evaluation of neurotoxic effects. Study 1 used data obtained from 194 former microelectronics workers with a history of organic solvent exposure and from 120 nonexposed controls. Three short scales were developed: Anxiety, Lack of Concentration, and Somatic Symptoms. The exposed workers endorsed items indicating a high degree of anxiety, an inability to concentrate, and complaints about bodily symptoms. Study 2 was designed to cross-validate the psychometric properties in 250 students. All 3 scales turned out to be sufficiently reliable. Study 3 further cross-validated the findings in 547 Ss, 305 of whom were exposed to organic solvents in a pump cleaning plant. Prior results were replicated, confirming that exposed Ss scored higher on anxiety, lack of concentration, and somatic symptoms as measured by the new scales.

Negative affect in East German migrants: Longitudinal effects of unemployment and social support.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Hahn,-André; Jerusalem,-Matthias
Anxiety,-Stress-and-Coping-An-International-Journal;1993 Vol 6(1) 57-69.
ABSTRACT Studied individual differences in anxiety and depression with respect to employment status and social support. 235 East German migrants who emigrated to West Germany were studied over a 2-yr period. There was a stable effect of employment status on anxiety and a significant decline of anxiety over time. Those Ss who found a job showed a gain in well-being. Jobless Ss were more depressed, and those who remained jobless over 2 yrs reported the highest degree of negative affect. Ss who remained jobless but received support were less anxious and less depressed.

Interaction of employment status and self-efficacy on alcohol consumption: A two-wave study on stressful life transitions.
Mittag,-Waldemar; Schwarzer,-Ralf
Psychology-and-Health;1993 Mar Vol 8(1) 77-87.
ABSTRACT 165 male and 105 female East German migrants completed measures of self-efficacy, alcohol consumption (AC), and employment status at 2 points of time with an interval of approximately 8 mo. Augmented AC appeared as an indicator of poor health behavior. Women did not drink heavily, and there were no associations for women between joblessness and self-efficacy. For men, AC was higher and was related to employment status and self-efficacy. Men who were unemployed at both measurement points in time were drinking almost twice as much as those who were employed at least at 1 point in time, indicating that long-term unemployment might be a situational risk factor for drinking men. This pertained only to men low in general self-efficacy.

Environmental anxiety: Assessing emotional distress and concerns after toxin exposure.
Bowler,-Rosemarie-M.; Schwarzer,-Ralf
Anxiety-Research;1991 Oct Vol 4(2) 167-180.
ABSTRACT Study 1 measured general anxiety in 485 workers exposed to organic solvents and 379 nonexposed workers. This was pursued to examine whether exposure leads to an increment in emotional disturbance and personality change, as reflected by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). General anxiety was significantly higher in solvent-exposed Ss than in referents. In Study 2, environmental anxiety was assessed among 250 undergraduates and 291 solvent-exposed and 259 nonexposed workers by an environmental worry scale (EWS). The EWS achieved satisfactory psychometric properties and demonstrated its usefulness for general research purposes. Study 3 examined the pathway that leads to the behavioral intention to avoid chemicals by using the EWS in a structural equation model. It was concluded that a certain degree of environmental worry is a prerequisite to transform the threatening event into readiness for action.

An integration of stress concepts into Eysenck's model.
Psychological-Inquiry;1991 Vol 2(3) 264-265.
ABSTRACT Discusses the synergistic, multi-risk-factor theory proposed by H. J. Eysenck  in his article on personality and disease. Elaboration is needed of the theory describing the complicated mediating and moderating psychological processes involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases.

Stigma controllability and coping as predictors of emotions and social support.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Weiner,-Bernard
Journal-of-Social-and-Personal-Relationships;1991 Feb Vol 8(1) 133-140.
ABSTRACT Examined affective reactions toward 8 disease-related stigmas and the intention to extend social support in a simulation experiment. The onset of the stigmas was varied as being either controllable or uncontrollable. In addition, the target person was described either as actively coping with the stigma or as not coping. The research question explored the effects of onset controllability and coping efforts on expectancies; blame; emotions such as pity, anger, and social stress; and on the willingness to support the target person. Each of 84 university students was confronted with the 8 stigmas under 4 different conditions. Both experimental factors elicited affective reactions and judgments to help. However, the coping dimension appeared stronger for most dependent variables. In addition, helping behavior was mediated by different affective reactions for disparate stigma groupings.

Social support and health: A theoretical and empirical overview.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Leppin,-Anja
Journal-of-Social-and-Personal-Relationships;1991 Feb Vol 8(1) 99-127.
ABSTRACT Conducted a meta-analysis that related social support (SOS) and social integration to morbidity and mortality based on 80 empirical studies, including more than 60,000 Ss. Data revealed disparate patterns of results that give rise to intriguing theoretical questions. Evidently, SOS operates in complex ways. Several causal models are specified that represent alternative pathways of SOS processes. Where SOS was associated with less illness, a direct effect model was proposed. In cases where more support was seemingly paradoxically associated with illness it is assumed that a mobilization of support has taken place. Recent research examples are presented that help illustrate future directions untangling the SOS-illness relationship.

Predicting adolescent health complaints by personality and behaviors.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Jerusalem,-Matthias; Kleine,-Dietmar
Psychology-and-Health;1990 Vol 4(3) 233-244.
ABSTRACT Predicted individual differences in health complaints by personality traits and by self-reported health/risk behaviors in 97 male adolescents (aged 17-22 yrs). Anxiety and loneliness were measured at Times 1 and 2, and health locus of control (HLOC), various behaviors, and health complaints were assessed at the end of the 2-yr study. A causal model was specified, employing anxiety and loneliness as distal predictors and HLOC and behaviors as proximal predictors of health complaints. Anxiety was the most powerful single predictor, and loneliness exerted a direct effect on HLOC and behaviors and an indirect effect on health complaints. Risk behavior as well as health behavior were related to complaints. Social integration facilitated not only health behavior but also risk behavior.

Selbstaufmerksamkeit und belastende Lebensereignisse: Eine Langsschnittstudie zur Ruckfalligkeit von Alkoholikern. / Self-consciousness and stressful life events: A longitudinal study of replapse in alcoholics.
Mittag,-Waldemar; Liebig,-Holger; Freund,-Alexandra; Schwarzer,-Ralf Zeitschrift-fur-Klinische-Psychologie.-Forschung-und-Praxis;1991 Vol 20(2) 154-165.
ABSTRACT Studied the interactions among self-awareness, critical life events, and relapse among alcoholics who completed a 3-wk inpatient detoxification program. The study was based on a social-cognitive model of addictive behavior. Ss were 38 male West German adult alcoholics (aged 24-62 yrs). Toward the end of inpatient treatment and again 3 and 6 mo later, Ss completed questionnaires assessing self-awareness and critical life events. The posttreatment test batteries also included a measure of recidivism. Interactions among self-awareness, critical life events, and recidivism were analyzed. Several German-language instruments were used, including the Self-Awareness Scale by M. Jerusalem and Schwarzer (1986), the Munich Life Events List by W. Maier-Diewald et al (1983), and the Munich Alcoholism Test by W. Feuerlein et al (1978).

Die Wirkung von Kontrollierbarkeit und Bewaltigungsverhalten auf Emotionen und soziale Unterstutzung. / The effects of controllability and coping on emotion and social support.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Weiner,-Bernard 
Zeitschrift-fur-Sozialpsychologie;1990 Vol 21(2) 118-125.
ABSTRACT Studied factors determining affective reactions to health-related stigmas and intention to extend social support to persons with these stigmas. Focus was on the effects of perceived controllability of the stigmatized condition and of the individual's strategies for coping with the condition. Human subjects: 85 male and female West German adults (university students). The Ss were presented with descriptions of individuals with 1 of 8 stigmatized conditions--acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), cancer, drug abuse, heart disease, anorexia nervosa, child abuse, depression, and obesity. The descriptions varied in terms of the cause of the stigmatized condition and the individual's coping behaviors. For each case, the Ss were asked to indicate the degree of anger or pity they felt for the individual and the amount of social support they would be willing to provide.

Selbstkonzept und Angstlichkeit als Einflussgrossen fur Stresserleben und Bewaltigungstendenzen. (Self-concept and anxiety as predictors of stress experiences and coping tendencies.)
Jerusalem,-Matthias; Schwarzer,-Ralf
Zeitschrift-fur-Entwicklungspsychologie-und-Padagogische-Psychologie;1989 Vol 21(4) 307-324.
ABSTRACT Studied the prediction of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping preferences by individual and cultural differences in coping resources and coping vulnerabilities. Human subjects: 476 normal male German and Turkish adolescents and adults (aged 16-22 yrs). A year-long longitudinal study was conducted. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance structure analysis were performed. Tests used: A German version of the Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1979), a German version of the Reactions to Tests Questionnaire (I. G. Sarason, 1984), the Shyness Scale (Schwarzer et al, 1986), the Work Load Scale, and the Time Pressure Scale.

Social support and health: A meta-analysis.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Leppin,-Anja
Psychology-and-Health;1989 Mar Vol 3(1) 1-15.
ABSTRACT Performed meta-analysis on 55 studies (published 1976-1987) on social support (SOS) and health that included a total sample size of 32,739 Ss. 83 effect sizes (correlations), based on independent samples, were identified. The correlations between SOS and poor health (including mortality) ranged from r = -0.60 to +0.23. The meta-analysis focused on data subsets generated by potential moderators, including gender, kind of support, and specific health variables. Ill health was more pronounced for those who lacked SOS, and SOS and health were more closely associated for women than for men. The degree of association depended on the circumstances, the population, and the concepts and measures of SOS and health employed.

Anxiety and self-concept as antecedents of stress and coping: A longitudinal study with German and Turkish adolescents.
Jerusalem,-Matthias; Schwarzer,-Ralf
Personality-and-Individual-Differences;1989 Vol 10(7) 785-792. 
ABSTRACT Investigates to what extent subjective coping preferences (problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping) can be predicted by individual and cultural differences in coping resources and coping vulnerabilities. Self-concept is considered as a personal resource whereas anxiety is considered as a vulnerability factor. Within a longitudinal design, 467 German and Turkish apprentices (aged 17-22 yrs) served as Ss. By analysis of variance (ANOVA) and by covariance structure analysis (LISREL) it could be demonstrated that emotion-focused coping is mainly influenced by anxiety whereas self-concept turned out to be beneficial for problem-focused coping in the German subsample.

Meta-analysis programs.
Behavior-Research-Methods,-Instruments,-and-Computers;1988 Jun Vol 20(3) 338.
ABSTRACT Describes a computer program for conducting meta-analysis with subroutines for manipulating probabilities, effect sizes, and correlations and managing data files.

Anxiety, aspirations, and self-concept in the achievement process: A longitudinal model with latent variables.
Covington,-Martin-V.; Omelich,-Carol-L.; Schwarzer,-Ralf
Motivation-and-Emotion;1986 Mar Vol 10(1) 71-88.
ABSTRACT Investigated the presumed linkages between traitlike predispositions to perceive threat and achievement performance, as mediated by statelike anxiety arousal on a longitudinal basis, using 435 psychology students. Self-report questionnaires were administered during a preenrollment period, after the first 2 midterms, and following the last 2 midterms. Little evidence was provided for the assumption that traitlike threat perceptions mediate performance; rather it was suggested that transient anxiety-linked emotions may be best understood as a byproduct of test taking. Findings support a recent reinterpretation of achievement anxiety as stemming from the disruptive effects of diminished ability perceptions and impaired personal worth, rather than from the interfering influence of diffused emotional arousal per se.

The evaluation of convergent and discriminant validity by use of structural equations.
Archiv-fur-Psychologie;1983 Vol 135(3) 219-243.
ABSTRACT The traditional procedure in analyzing a multitrait-multimethod matrix is intuitive and informal. One modern strategy to obtain precise information on convergent and discriminant validity is an approach in which all traits and methods are specified as latent variables. This can be viewed as a special case of confirmatory factor analysis or path analysis. This strategy was applied to the distinction between 3 facets of self-concept; to the validation of anxiety, curiosity, and anger measured both as a trait and as a state; and to the validation of 2 attitudes concerning cigarette smoking and capital punishment. The parameters were estimated by the LISREL V program. Results encourage further applications in educational research.

Worry and emotionality as separate components in test anxiety.
International-Review-of-Applied-Psychology;1984 Apr Vol 33(2) 205-220.
ABSTRACT Administered the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) to 763 males and 811 females in Grades 6 and 9 as part of a longitudinal study of the development of school-related anxiety, dissatisfaction, and the perceived learning environment. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, which posited worry and emotionality as latent variables. The final set of items was evaluated in an exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and smallest space analysis was used to further demonstrate the separation of worry and emotionality. A traditional item analysis was also performed. The separation of worry and emotionality as different components of test anxiety was independently demonstrated in confirmatory factor analyses with the female and male samples. The 2 dimensions correlated 0.67 in the female sample and 0.54 in the male sample. Traditional factor, smallest space, and item analyses all confirmed and enriched these findings. It is concluded that the TAI appears to be a very promising instrument. It is a reliable and content valid measure that can be used to assess cognitive and emotional facets of test anxiety as a situation-specific trait.

Social comparison, expectations and emotional reactions in the classroom.
Grobel,-Jo; Schwarzer,-Ralf
School-Psychology-International;1982 Jan-Mar Vol 3(1) 49-56.
ABSTRACT Conducted a longitudinal study of 2,253 German 5th and 8th graders, who responded to a questionnaire that measured test anxiety, trait and state anxiety, attitudes toward school, perceived anonymity and loss of control, self-esteem, and perceived classroom competition. Results show that a growing competition within a reference group with relatively high academic standards led to higher levels of anxiety. Ss with a generally lower performing reference group seemed to feel less threatened over time. Perceived school environment was a major factor in affecting self-esteem and anxiety. It is concluded that school anxiety is mediated by the student's specific perception of the interaction between personal position and social surroundings. Teachers should give special attention to the emotional effects of classroom competition.

Achievement anxiety with respect to reference groups in school.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Schwarzer,-Christine
Journal-of-Educational-Research;1982 May-Jun Vol 75(5) 305-308.
ABSTRACT Reference group theory predicts that students of low ability in good classes feel worse than students of high ability in poor classes. With this in mind, a German version of the Test Anxiety Scale for Children was administered to 1,479 5th and 8th graders attending 1 of 3 academic tracks. An interaction between type of school and grade level confirmed the expectation that after some years in a selective system students display a paradox pattern of well-being. In the discussion, reference group theory and test anxiety theory are tied together by focussing on self-evaluations in a social context.

Selbstkonzeptentwicklung nach einem Bezugsgruppenwechsel. (Self-concept development after a reference-group change.)
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Lange,-Bernward; Jerusalem,-Matthias Zeitschrift-fur-Entwicklungspsychologie-und-Padagogische-Psychologie;1982 Apr Vol 14(2) 125-140.
ABSTRACT The development of the school-related self-concept of ability and the general self-evaluation of pupils has been viewed as a school socialization effect independent of reference groups. Ability is perceived with respect to social comparison processes within the learning environment, and achievement is performed and evaluated in a limited social context that is considered a reference group by students. A shift from one reference group to another can result in a change of individual rank positions leading to a change in academic self-concept. In West Germany, the transition from primary to secondary school is a transition from an achievement heterogeneous context to 3 levels of achievement homogeneous contexts. Students who enter a high or a low track are prone to altered social comparisons. In a longitudinal study, 251 students were followed up during the year after the transition. It is concluded that at the transition point, strong differences between high and low achievers were present; this was not the case some months later after Ss had adapted to the new social context. Findings demonstrate a reference group effect.

Arger als Zustand und als Disposition. (Anger as state and trait.)
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Schwarzer,-Christine
Zeitschrift-fur-Differentielle-und-Diagnostische-Psychologie;1982 Jan-Mar Vol 3(1) 27-33.
ABSTRACT State-Anger and Trait-Anger can be assessed separately by 2 scales of the State-Trait Personality Inventory. A self-report procedure can be the most valid method to measure these aspects because emotions are private events that cannot be observed by others more accurately than by oneself. In the present study, the separation was performed by a confirmatory factor analysis. The final solution is illustrated by smallest space analysis and exploratory factor analysis.

Besorgtheit und Aufgeregtheit als unterscheidbare Komponenten der Leistungsangstlichkeit. / The identification of worry and of emotionality factors in test anxiety.
Psychologische-Beitrage;1981 Vol 23(3-4) 579-594.
ABSTRACT Recent research on anxiety has focused on the separation of worry and emotionality as different components of test anxiety. A new test-anxiety inventory was analyzed by a confirmatory factor analysis to determine whether the data would fit a 2-dimensional model. The study is based on data from 2,416 students attending Grades 5, 6, and 9. Preliminary data analysis was made with 6th graders only. If 5 items were eliminated, the goodness of fit became acceptable. The final solution contained 6 worry and 9 emotionality items. This solution was replicated successfully with the other 2 subsamples; this replication was also valid for different methods of data analysis. A correlation study supported the assumption of convergent validity. Worry as well as emotionality turned out to be dependent on academic achievement; however, they differed in age specificity.

Selbstwertdienliche Attributionen nach Leistungsruckmeldungen. (Self-serving attributions after performance feedback.)
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Jerusalem,-Matthias
Zeitschrift-fur-Entwicklungspsychologie-und-Padagogische-Psychologie;1982 Jan Vol 14(1) 47-57.
ABSTRACT Maintains that causal attributions for success are usually more internal and causal attributions for failure more external. This can be seen as a self-serving bias. Contradictory findings can be explained by self-enhancement strategies in self-presentation or by individual differences in self-concept. This study focused on individual differences as moderators of the relationship between achievement feedback and causal attributions. In 2 experiments with 28 5th graders and 80 college students, a personality dimension and the achievement feedback showed an interaction with ability attribution. It is concluded that individuals with high self-esteem can be characterized by a preference of processing self-serving attributions.

Test anxiety related to grade levels and types of schools.
Psychologie-in-Erziehung-und-Unterricht;1981 Vol 28(1) 1-6.
ABSTRACT Tested the assumption that test anxiety follows a differential development during secondary school. A test anxiety scale was given to 1,359 5th-8th graders in the German tripartite school system. As expected, a disordinal interaction was found by 2-way ANOVA. In the 5th grade, Ss with the lowest achievement level showed the highest anxiety level, while those with the highest achievement level showed the lowest anxiety level. In the 8th grade, the results are vice versa. Achievement level is defined by the type of school. It is concluded that the perceived achievement level within a small social context is responsible for emotional reactions. This is in accordance with reference group theory.
What will become of anxious elementary school pupils?
Zeitschrift-fur-Entwicklungspsychologie-und-Padagogische-Psychologie;1979 Jul Vol 11(3) 261-271.
ABSTRACT 752 children were tested for school anxiety in Grades 2 and 3 and were divided into high, medium, and low-anxiety groups. Standardized achievement tests were administered 1 and 2 yrs later. Three years after anxiety testing, configurational frequency analysis with school anxiety, socioeconomic status, and sex as predictors and type of school as criterion, generated 5 predictor types--3 related to academic success and 2 to failure. Multiple ANOVA showed no significant interactions, but there were strong main effects of the predictors on the standardized achievement test scores. Using several criteria, it was possible to distinguish the highly anxious Ss as a fairly homogeneous group with limited academic success.

School dissatisfaction yesterday and today: A differential cohort effect.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Royl,-Wolfgang
Zeitschrift-fur-Entwicklungspsychologie-und-Padagogische-Psychologie;1979 Oct Vol 11(4) 372-376.
ABSTRACT Compared 2 cohorts (1975 and 1977) of 8th graders in traditional schools with 2 similar cohorts from comprehensive schools. The 1975 cohort showed a higher dissatisfaction for the traditional schools, while the 1977 cohort showed no preference for either type of school. The significant interaction between cohort and type of school is interpreted as a differential cohort effect or as a Hawthorne effect.

Sequential prediction of academic success.
Zeitschrift-fur-Entwicklungspsychologie-und-Padagogische-Psychologie;1979 Apr Vol 11(2) 170-180.
ABSTRACT Predicting academic achievement from earlier data for a future measurement point disregards any possible treatment effects during this period. The more academic achievement depends on task-specific prerequisites, however, the less useful long-term prediction will be. Path analysis of data from 714 Ss followed from Grades 4 through 6 indicated that the direct causal effect of initial learner characteristics in Grade 4 decreased over time. Specific prerequisites were the best single predictors of academic achievement. However, the indirect causal effects of initial learner characteristics on achievement in Grades 5 and 6 were higher than expected. Findings are discussed with respect to the quality of instruction as a determinant of learner processes.
Changes in test anxiety in comprehensive schools and traditional schools.
Schwarzer,-Ralf; Royl,-Wolfgang
Psychologie-in-Erziehung-und-Unterricht;1979 Vol 26(5) 259-266.
ABSTRACT Tested the change of mean scores in test anxiety of students in different secondary school types. Emphasis was placed on a comparison of comprehensive schools with the traditional tripartite school system ( Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium ). At the beginning of the secondary level (5th grade) anxiety mean scores were distributed parallel to achievement distribution. The highest mean was found in the Hauptschule, the lowest in the Gymnasium, whereas Realschule and comprehensive school scores were in between. Three years later, Ss in comprehensive schools showed the lowest anxiety mean score. This effect remained stable even if sex, socioeconomic status, manifest anxiety, and social desirability were held constant. Results are interpreted on the basis of reference group theory.

The secular acceleration of PSB-intelligence.
Royl,-Wolfgang; Schwarzer,-Ralf
Diagnostica;1976 Vol 22(3) 99-109.
ABSTRACT Reports evidence for "secular acceleration" of intelligence measured by the Prufsystem fur Schul- und Bildungsberatung (PSB) of W. Horn (1969). New norms are presented for a number of samples. The main sample consisted of 1,032 5th-grade students who were between 10 yrs 4 mo and 11 yrs old when tested in 1973-1974. Mean scores of this sample exceeded those obtained by Horn 5 yrs earlier on subscales 1-8 but were lower on subscales 9 and 10. Regular revision of norms of intelligence and other tests is suggested.

Test anxiety, socio-economic status, and scholastic achievement.
Psychologie-in-Erziehung-und-Unterricht;1975 Vol 22(1) 16-22.
ABSTRACT Administered to 1,369 4th graders a German version of the Test Anxiety Scale for Children. When Ss were classified into 5 groups by social class (as indicated by the father's occupation), anxiety rose consistently for boys, and even more for girls, with lower social class. Lower grades in German and mathematics were significantly associated with greater anxiety, especially for girls.

Last Update: 03.11.99