In previous sections we mainly focused on a single variable,
describing a distribution and calculating summary statistics. Statistics
that describe a single variable are referred to as **univariate statistics**. If we
examine the relationship between two variables, we refer to it as **bivariate statistics**. If the
relationships among several variables are simultaneously examined, we
refer to it as **multivariate statistics**.
**Measures of relation** provide means of summarizing the
relation between two variables.

**Citation**

The E-Learning project SOGA-R was developed at the Department of Earth Sciences by Kai Hartmann, Joachim Krois and Annette Rudolph. You can reach us via mail by soga[at]zedat.fu-berlin.de.

You may use this project freely under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Please cite as follow: *Hartmann,
K., Krois, J., Rudolph, A. (2023): Statistics and Geodata Analysis
using R (SOGA-R). Department of Earth Sciences, Freie Universitaet Berlin.*