In previous sections we mainly focused on a single variable, describing a distribution and calculating summary statistics. Statistics that describe a single variable are referred to as univariate statistics. If we examine the relationship between two variables, we refer to it as bivariate statistics. If the relationships among several variables are simultaneously examined, we refer to it as multivariate statistics. Measures of relation provide means of summarizing the relation between two variables.


The E-Learning project SOGA-R was developed at the Department of Earth Sciences by Kai Hartmann, Joachim Krois and Annette Rudolph. You can reach us via mail by soga[at]

Creative Commons License
You may use this project freely under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Please cite as follow: Hartmann, K., Krois, J., Rudolph, A. (2023): Statistics and Geodata Analysis using R (SOGA-R). Department of Earth Sciences, Freie Universitaet Berlin.