Many applications of probability and statistics concern the repetition of an experiment. We call each repetition a trial, and we are particularly interested in cases in which the experiment (each trial) has only two possible outcomes: Success or failure, true or false, 0 or 1.

To analyze repeated trials of an experiment that has two possible outcomes, we require knowledge of factorials, binomial coefficients, and Bernoulli trials.

On the basis of those prerequisites we learn about the the binomial distribution, which is a probability distribution for the number of successes in a sequence of Bernoulli trials (Weiss 2010).