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iniciativa bunebrivi ekonomikuri wesrigisTvis

 

qalaq viorglis ekonomikuri saswauli

 

I iyo da ara iyo ra - ase iwyeba yvela zRapari da Cveni ambavic uaRresad waagavs zRapars. iyo erT qalaqSi ubralo memanqane, romelic 1931 wels biurgermaisterad airCies. mixael untergugensbergeri erTi Raribi glexis ojaxidan iyo warmomavlobiT. jer kidev Tormeti wlisam mianeba skolas Tavi, muSaoba samWedloSi daiwyo da amiT ojaxSi oriode groSi Sehqonda. mas ar undoda ubralo muSad gaelia cxovrebis dReni da meqanikosis xelobis Seswavlas miyo xeli, maSin is TxuTmeti wlisa Tu iqneboda. helers helerze adebda da ase agrovebda saswavlo fuls, romelic ostatisTvis unda gadaexada. Segirdobisa da siymawvilis wlebs evropaSi xetialis wlebi mohyva, bodenzeedan venamde, rumineTidan germaniamde. aq gaecno igi pirvelad profkavSirebsa da muSaTa gaerTianebebs, proletaruli organizaciebis pirvelsaxes.

21 wlis untersgugensbergeri gadawyvets qveynis samsaxurs mihyos xeli patara qalaq viorglis finansur sakiTxebs ganagebs. kargi muSaobisa da mizanswrafulobis miuxedavad mas aravin awinaurebs - is xom social-demokrati da profkavSirebis aqtiuri wevria. rogorc misi Rirseuli warmomadgeneli sxvadasxva SekrebaSic ki monawileobs. pirveli msoflio omis dasrulebis Semdeg igi Temis sabWos wevria, Semdeg qalaqis Tavis moadgile da 1931 wlidan 4216 moqalaqis biurgermaisteri, biurgermaisteri qalaqisa, romlis saxelic viorglia.

ociani wlebis msoflio ekonomikur krizisze uamravi wigni dawerila, asobiT mecnieruli Sroma Seqmnila. idga ukiduresi siduxWirisa da umuSevrobis wlebi - swored am ambavma Seuwyo xeli hitleris gamarjvebas germaniaSi.

Tuki 1930 wels qalaq viorglSi 310 rkinigzeli iyo dasaqmebuli 1933 wels maTma ricxvma 190-mde daiwia. umuSevrebi yofil kolegasa da alxlandel qalaqis Tavs mosvenebas ar aZlevdnen da daxmarebas SesTxovdnen.

mainc ra unda gaekeTebina am ukanasknels? umuSevroba marto rkinigzelTa Soris ki ara, mTel qalaqSi izrdeboda. viorglSi didi industria arasdros yofila ganviTarebuli, mcire sawarmoebi asanTis xuxulasaviT ingreoda, didi iyo ara marto umuSevarTa aramed gadasaxadidan ganTavisuflebulTa ricxvic - 1932 wels amgvari 200 adamiani aRiricxeboda, isini RaribTaTvis Semweobis gadaxdas moiTxovdnen.

mixael untergugensbergeri aseT viTarebaSi sruliad umweod ki gamoiyureboda magram aramc da aramc umoqmedod. imdeni gamoCenili adamiania - fiqrobda is - maT uamravi wigni aqvT dawerili. unda iyos sadme pasuxi. man karl marqsis Seswavlas mihyo xeli da iq prudonis - gamomcemlis - saxelsa da gvars waawyda. misi nawarmoebebic erTi amosunTqviT waikiTxa. uSedegod! mxolod mas Semdeg ipova xsnis gza, rodesac silvio gezelis wigni, "bunebrivi ekonomikuri wesrigi", Cauvarda xelSi. is kiTxulobda da kiTxuloba, zogierT gverds orjer da samjerac ki, vidre daijerebda, rom mtanjvel kiTxvebze pasuxi aRmoaCina. Rom gamosavali napovnia. radganac mas Zalian undoda raime memoqmedebina, xsnis programa Seadgina.

vidre saqmes Seudgeboda, untergugensbergeri Temis sabWos yovel wevrs cal-calke moeTaTbira. rodesac darwmunda, rom umravlesoba mis azrs emxroboda sxdoma moiwvia da ganacxada: Cvens patara TemSi 400 umuSevari gvyavs, aqedan 200 gadasaxadebisgan gaTavisuflebulia. mTel raionSi umuSevarTa ricxvi 1500 kacs aRwevs. saTemo salaro carielia. erTaderTi wyaro Semosavlisa 1931 wlis amouRebeli gadasaxadebia, sul 180 000 Silingi. magram erT groSsac ver vixilavT, radganac xalxs fuli enatreba. qalaq insbrukis salarosi 1.300.000 Silingi gvmarTebs da procentebsac ki ver vixdiT. gvaqvs regionuli da federaluri mTavrobis vali, iqac verafers vabrunebT, ase rom, araviTar daxmarebas unda velodeT. gasul naxevar weliwadSi mxolod 3000 Silingis mogroveba SevZeliT. Temis mdgomareoba dRiTi dRe uaresdeba, gadasaxadebs xom veravin ixdis. mxolod umuSevarTa ricxvi izrdeba da izrdeba.

Semdeg ki man "qrobadi fulis" gegma warmoadgina

erovnuli bankis mier gamocemuli fulis mimoqceva Zalian nelia. vinmem es procesi unda daaCqaros. igi xelidan-xelSi swrafad unda gadadiodes. fuli kvlav gacvlis saSualebad unda iqces. ra Tqma unda, am gacvlis saSualebas "fuls" ver davarqmevT. amis neba ara gvaqvs darTuli. modiT, mas "muSaobis mowmoba" davarqvaT. es mowmobebi mxolod 1, 5, 10 Silingis ekvivalenturi iyo. amgvari mowmobebis mcire raodenoba mosaxleobaSi darigda mcire "xelfasiviT" yvelas erTi kiTxva awvalebda: gayididnen Tu ara vaWrebi TavianT produqcias am mowmobebze?

ai, aq iwyeba erTi umTavresi Tavi Cveni zRapris magvari ambisa. "samuSao mowmobebiT" ise sargeblobdnen, rogorc namdvili fuliT. saxlis mflobeli binis qiris am mowmobebiT krefda, vaWari yidda produqcias da zed Tavazianad amatebda: uRrmesi madloba, imedia, kidev SemogvivliT."

Temma, upirveles yovlisa, gadaudebeli samuSaoebis Sesrulebas daiwyo. pirvel mSeneblobas 1932 wlis 11 ianvars Cauyares safuZveli: keZod ki, qalaqis erTi nawili sakanalizacio sistemiT uzrunvelyves, quCa mapirkeTes, viorglis centrSi asfalti daages. yvelaferi 43.386 Silingi dajda. fulis didi nawili mosaxleobas xelfasis saxiT ukan daubrunda. Txilamurebis trasis asaSeneblad 500 muSa daiqiraves, gaWirvebulTaTvis samzareulo aaSenes, yovelive amis Rirebuleba 4000 Silingi iyo da ase dausruleblad. umuSevarTa erTma meoTxedma kvlav iSova puris fuli ojaxis gamosakvebad

xelfasi daubrkoleblad gaicemoda "samuSao mowmobebiT". es ukanaskneli ki iwyebda xetials Temis sabWodan mSeneblisken, mSeneblidan muSisken, muSidan xabazisken, xabazidan parikmaxerisken da ase Semdeg. "samuSao mowmobebis" marTva Temis movaleoba iyo. Tu fulis dazogva iyo saWiro, mas Tavisuflad cvlidnen Silingze anda piriqiT.

magram ratom daerqva mas "dnobadi fuli"? igi yovel Tve erTi procentiT ufasurdeboda. ese igi wliurad 12 procentiT. yoveli Tvis bolos "samuSao mowmobis" mflobels marka unda eyida, romelic Sesabamisad erTi, xuTi anda aTi groSi Rirda da isini fulze daekra. Tu fuls es marka ar eqneboda, erTi procentiT gaufasurebulad iTvleboda.

ai, kdev erTi Tavi Cveni zRaprad qceuli ambisa: banki "samuSao mowmobis" momsaxurebisas procentebs TavisTvis ar moiTxovda, mTeli mogeba saTemo sabWos salarosken miedineboda.

cnobam viorglis ekonomikuri situaciis gajansaRebis Sesaxeb mTel msoflios Semouara. qalaqi ekonomistTa Tavisebur meqad iqca. "dnobadi fulis" ideas isini miesalmebodnen, radganac aseT dros azri ekargeboda fulis muTaqebSi Senaxvas. mflobels igi Semnaxvel salaruSi unda waeRo. Tanac misi moqmedebis are mxolod viorgliT iyo Semofargluri, amitomac insbrukSi savaWrod aRaravin midioda.

erTi Sveicarieli Jurnalisti werda: "viorgli 1933 wels movinaxule, anu eqsperimentis dawyebidan erTi wlis Semdeg. yvelam, miuxedavad partiuli kuTvnilebisa unda aRiaros, rom Sedegebi zRapruls uaxlovdeboda. winaT miwasTan gasworebuli quCebi axla avtobanebs waagavda. qalaqis Tavis samyofeli gaeremontebinaT da is lamazi yvavilebiT garSemortymul agaraks waagavda. yvela muSa "dnobadi fulis" fanatikosad qceuliyo. "samuSao mowmoba" maRaziebSi Cveulebrivi fulis darad miiReboda."

qalaq kicbuelis mcxovreblebma, romelTac viorglelTa wamowyeba Tavidan sasacilodac ar yofnidaT, mogvianebiT maTi mibaZvac ki gadawyvites. maT 3000 Silingis ekvivalenturi - erTi Silingi erT mosaxleze - "dnobadi fuli dabeWdes da moqalaqeebs dauriges. orive Temis "mowmoba" orive qalaqSi vargisi iyo da daubrkoleblad gadadioda xelidan xelSi. uTvalav avstriul Tems undoda viorglis gakvalul gzas dasdgomoda, magram mainc orad gaxleCili avstriuli mTavrobis saboloo gadawyvetilebas ucdidnen.

dolfusis faSisturma xelisuflebam sasamarTloSi iCivla. warmogidgeniaT, viRac proletarma, romelmac mxolod eqvsi klasi daamTavra skolaSi, arc msoflio da arc avstriuli ekonomika Seuswavlia, aranairi samecniero xarisxi aqvs, rkinigzelma, social-demokratma Tavs ufleba misca avstriis ekonomikaSi cvlilebebi ganexorcielebina. yvela saxis valutis beWdva mxolod erovnuli bankis movaleobaa. "dnobadi fulis" brunva aikrZala. qalaqis Tav untergugensbergers far-xmali ar dauyria. mosarCle mxarem sasamarTlos samive instancia gaiara - warumateblad! 1933 wlis 18 noembers viorglis mkvidrTa yvela saCivari sabolood iyo uaryofili. magram, radganac dabali instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis gaprotestebas misi brZanebulebis moqmedebis SeCereba ar SeeZlo, 15 seqtembers "dnobadi fuli" mimoqcevidan amoiRes.

mas Semdeg mravalma wyalma Caiara. vixileT dolfusis marionetuli saxelmwifo, hitleris mesame raixi, gamoviareT meore msoflio omis Wir-varami, Cvens tyavze viwvnieT germaniis aRmSeneblobis yvela siZnele. dRes msoflios mraval sakiTxSi samagaliTod vyevarT. magram patara qalaq viorglsa da mis Wkvian qalaqis Tavs daviwyebas mainc ver mivcemT.

A

aneta rixteri

 

amoRebulia avstriis profkavSirebis gaerTianebis Tviuri Jurnal "arbait und virtSaftidan" 1983 wlis marti

 

 

damatebiT cnobebs alternatiuli fuladi modelebis Sesaxeb - rogor funqcioben isini Tanamedrove msoflioSi - miiRebT iniciativa bunebrivi ekonomikuri wiesrigisTvis ofisSi, qalaqi mainis frankfurti.

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