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The Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET) was established in 1989. The goal of this scientific institution is to bring about the replacement particularly of legally prescribed animal experiments with alternative test methods, to reduce the number of test animals to the absolutely necessary level and to alleviate the pain and suffering of animals used in experiments. ZEBET is responsible for documenting alternatives to animal experiment, for assessing them and for recommending or also pushing through their recognition both nationally and internationally

ecopa: european consensus-platform for alternatives

The concept of consensus between the parties concerned, i.e. animal welfare, industry, academia and governmental institutions has been accepted in various countries as an efficient way to stimulate research into alternatives to animal experiments and enforcing the acceptance of alternatives in experimental practice. The goal is to respond to the need for the creation of a pan-european platform. Besides of the fact that a link is needed between the different national platforms, consensus discussions with all relevant groups will maximise results and minimise conflicts within the 3 R's strategy. Jointly accepted opinions transformed into a strong plea has substantial impact on issues centering around alternative methods.


ECVAM was created by a Communication from the Commission to the Council and the Parliament in October 1991, pointing to a requirement in Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes, which requires that the Commission and the Member States should actively support the development, validation and acceptance of methods which could reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals.


The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has worked with scientists since 1981 to find new methods to replace the use of laboratory animals in experiments, reduce the number of animals tested, and refine necessary tests to eliminate pain and distress.


FRAME advocates the Three Rs. The long-term goal is the total elimination of laboratory animal use, through the development, validation and acceptance of replacement alternative methods.  FRAME seeks to promote a moderate, but nonetheless determined, approach, by encouraging a realistic consideration of the ethical and scientific issues involved and the widest possible adoption of the Three Rs.


The MEIC (Multicentre Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity) study is an international programme to evaluate the relevance and reliability of in vitro tests for predicting acute systemic toxicity. The study was initiated by Dr. Björn Ekwall in 1989 and have been organised by a committee elected by the Scandinavian Society for Cell Toxicology.

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