Research Publications on Social Support

(Update from 09.08.2016)

Department of Health Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

For psychometric scales see

Boehmer, S., Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Coping and quality of life after tumor surgery: Personal and social resources promote different domains of quality of life. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 20, 61-75.

Burke, R. J., Greenglass, E. R., & Schwarzer, R. (1996). Predicting teacher burnout over time: Effects of work stress, social support, and self-doubts on burnout and its consequences. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping: An International Journal, 9, 261-275.

Ernsting, A., Schneider, M., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2015). The Enabling Effect of Social Support on Vaccination Uptake via Self-Efficacy and Planning. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 20 ( 2 ) pp. 239 – 246. DOI: 10.1080/13548506.2014.920957. 

Gellert, P., Ziegelmann, J. P., Warner, L., & Schwarzer, R. (2011). Physical activity intervention in older adults: Does a participating partner make a difference? European Journal of Ageing, 8, 211-219. doi: 10.1007/s10433-011-0193-5

Hamilton, K., Warner, L. M.,  & Schwarzer, R. (2016). Effects of self-efficacy and friend support on physical exercise intentions and exercise in adolescents. Health Education and Behavior, doi: 10.1177/1090198116648266

Jerusalem, M., Hahn, A., & Schwarzer, R. (1996). Social bonding and loneliness after network disruption: A longitudinal study of East German refugees. Social Indicators Research, 38, 229-245.

Klauer, T., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Soziale Unterstützung: Neue Wege in der Forschung [Social support: New paths of research]. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, 15, 141-142.

Klauer, T., & Schwarzer, R. (2001). Soziale Unterstützung und Depression [Social support and depression]. Verhaltenstherapie und Verhaltensmedizin.Themenheft: Soziales Netz und psychische Störungen, 22, 333-352.

Knoll, N., Burkert, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Reciprocal support provision: Personality as a moderator? European Journal of Personality, 20, 217-236.

Knoll, N., Schulz, U., Schwarzer, R., & Rosemeier, H. P. (2006). Provider's appraisal detection bias and the efficacy of received support in medical students preparing for an exam. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 599-615.

Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Gender and age differences in social support: A study on East German refugees. In G. Weidner, M. Kopp, & M. Kristenson (Eds.), Heart disease: Environment, stress, and gender. NATO Science Series, Series I: Life and Behavioural Sciences, Vol. 327 (pp. 198-210). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Knoll, N, & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Soziale Unterstützung [Social support]. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Series X, Vol. 1: Gesundheitspsychologie  (pp. 333-349). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.

Knoll, N., Schwarzer, R., Pfüller, B., & Kienle, R. (2007). Transmission of depressive symptoms in couples undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. European Psychologist, 14, 7-17.

Leppin, A., & Schwarzer, R. (1997). Sozialer Rückhalt, Krankheit und Gesundheitsverhalten [Social support, illness, and health behavior]. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Gesundheitspsychologie. Ein Lehrbuch (pp. 349-373). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.

Luszczynska, A., Boehmer, S., Knoll, N., Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Emotional support for men and women with cancer: Do patients receive what their partners provide? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 156-163.

Luszczynska, A., Gerstorf, D., Boehmer, S., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Patients' coping profiles and partners' support provision. Psychology and Health, 22, 749-764.

Luszczynska, A., Kowalska, M., Mazurkiewicz, M., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Berlinskie Skale Wsparcia Spolecznego (BSSS). Wyniki wstepnych badan nad adaptacja skal i ich wlasnosciami psychometrycznymi [Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS): Polish version of BSSS and preliminary results on its psychometric properties]. Studia Psychologiczne, 44(3), 17-27.

Luszczynska, A., Mohamed, N. E., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Self-efficacy and social support predict benefit finding 12 months after cancer surgery: The mediating role of coping strategies. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 10, 365-375.


Reyes-Fernández, B., Montenegro- Montenegro, E. M., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). Self-efficacy, action control, and social support explain physical activity changes among Costa Rican older adults.  Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 11 ( 8 ), 1573 – 1578.  doi:10.1123/jpah.2013-0175

Reyes Fernández, B., Warner, L., Knoll, N., Montenegro-Montenegro, E., Schwarzer, R.  (2015). Synergistic effects of social support and self-efficacy on dietary motivation predicting fruit and vegetable intake. Appetite, 87, 330–335. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.12.22

Schröder, K. E. E., Schwarzer, R., & Endler, N. S. (1997). Predicting cardiac patients’ quality of life from the characteristics of their spouses. Journal of Health Psychology, 2(2), 231-244. 

Schröder, K. E. E., Schwarzer, R., & Konertz, W. (1998). Coping as a mediator in recovery from cardiac surgery. Psychology & Health., 13(1), 83-97.

Schröder, K. E. E., & Schwarzer, R. (2001). Do partners' personality resources add to the prediction of patients' coping and quality of life? Psychology & Health, 16(2), 139-159.

Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2003). Soziale Unterstützung bei der Krankheitsbewältigung. Die Berliner Social Support Skalen (BSSS) [Social support in coping with illness: The Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS)]. Diagnostica, 49, 73-82.

Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Long-term effects of spousal support on coping with cancer after surgery. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 716-732.

Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Partnerschaftliche Bewältigung einer Krebserkrankung [Dyadic coping with cancer]. In P. Buchwald, S. E. Hobfoll & C. Schwarzer (Eds.), Stress gemeinsam bewältigen (pp. 121-138). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.

Schwarzer R, Bowler RM, Cone JE. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2014;27(1):18–26.

Schwarzer,R., Cone, J. E., ; Li, J., & Bowler, R. (2016). A PTSD Symptoms Trajectory Mediates Between Exposure Levels and Emotional Support in Police Responders to 9/11: A Growth Curve Analysis. BMC Psychiatry, DOI: 10.1186/s12888-016-0907-5

Schwarzer, R., Dunkel-Schetter, C., & Kemeny, M. (1994). The multidimensional nature of received social support in gay men at risk of HIV infection and AIDS. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 319-339.

Schwarzer, R., & Gutiérrez-Doña, B. (2005). More spousal support for men than for women: A comparison of sources and types of support. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 52, 523-532.

Schwarzer, R., Hahn, A., & Jerusalem, M. (1993). Negative affect in East German migrants: Longitudinal effects of unemployment and social support. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 6, 57-69.

Schwarzer, R., Hahn, A., & Schröder, H. (1994). Social integration and social support in a life crisis: Effects of macrosocial change in East Germany. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 685-706.

Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, M., & Hahn, A. (1994). Unemployment, social support and health complaints: A longitudinal study of stress in East German refugees. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 4, 31-45.

Schwarzer, R., & Knoll, N. (2007). Functional roles of social support within the stress and coping process: A theoretical and empirical overview. International Journal of Psychology, 42, 243-252.

Schwarzer, R., Knoll, N., & Rieckmann, N. (2004). Social support. In A. Kaptein & J. Weinman (Eds.), Health Psychology (pp. 158-182). Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Schwarzer, R., & Knoll, N. (2010). Social support. In D. French, A. Kaptein, K. Vedhara, & J. Weinman (Eds.), Health psychology (pp. 283-293)(2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell.

Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1988). Social support: The many faces of helpful social interactions. International Journal of Educational Research, 2, 333-345.

Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1989). Social support and health: A meta-analysis. Psychology & Health: An International Journal, 3, 1-15.

Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1989). Sozialer Rückhalt und Gesundheit: Eine Meta-Analyse [Social support and health: A meta-analysis]. Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1991). Social support and health: A theoretical and empirical overview. Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 8, 99-127.

Schwarzer, R., & Rieckmann, N. (2002). Social support, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. In G. Weidner, M. S. Kopp, & M. Kristenson (Eds.), Heart disease: Environment, stress, and gender. NATO Science Series, Series I: Life and Behavioural Sciences (Vol. 327, pp. 185-197). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Schwarzer, R., & Schröder, K. (1997). Effects of self-efficacy and social support on postsurgical recovery of heart patients. Irish Journal of Psychology, 18, 88-103.

Schwarzer, R., & Schröder, K.E.E. (1997). Social and personal coping resources as predictors of quality of life in cardiac patients. European Review of Applied Psychology, 47, 131-136.

Schwarzer, R., Schröder, K., & Schröder, H. (1994). Alcohol consumption in a time of macrosocial stress: Migration, social isolation, and anger as risk factors. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping. An International Journal, 7, 173-184.

Schwarzer, R., Taubert, S., & Schulz, U. (2002). Soziale Integration, Gesundheit und Lebenserwartung [Social integration, health and life expectancy]. Berichte aus den Sitzungen der Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften e.V., 20/3. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


Schwarzer, R., & Weiner, B. (1990). Die Wirkung von Kontrollierbarkeit und Bewälti­gungsverhalten auf Emotionen und soziale Unterstützung [The effects of controllability and coping on emotions and social support]. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsy­chologie, 21, 118-125.

Schwarzer, R., & Weiner, B. (1991). Stigma controllability and coping as predictors of emotions and social support. Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 8, 133-140.

Warner, L. M., Gutiérrez-Doña, B., Villegas Angulo, M., & Schwarzer, R. (2015). Resource Loss, Self-Efficacy, and Family Support Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: A Three-Year Study of Earthquake Survivors. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 28, 3, 239-253. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2014.955018.

Warner, L. M., Ziegelmann, J. P., Schüz, B., Wurm, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2011). Synergistic effect of social support and self-efficacy on physical exercise in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 19, 249-261.

Warner, L. M., Ziegelmann, J. P., Schüz, B., Wurm, S., Tesch-Römer, C., & Schwarzer, R. (2011). Maintaining autonomy despite multimorbidity: Self-efficacy and the two faces of social support. European Journal of Ageing, 8, 3-12. doi: 10.1007/s10433-011-0176-6

Warner, L. M., Schüz, B., Aiken, L., Ziegelmann, J. P., Wurm, S., Tesch-Römer, C., & Schwarzer, R. (2013). Interactive effects of social support and social conflict on medication adherence in multimorbid older adults. Social Science & Medicine, 87, 23-30. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.03.012