Some Research Publications Inspired by the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA)

(Update  14.02.2016)

Department of Health Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

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Barg, C. J., Latimer, A. E., Pomery, E. A., Rivers, S. E., Rench, T.A., Prapavessis, H., & Salovey, P. (2012): Examining predictors of physical activity among inactive middle-aged women: An application of the health action process approach. Psychology & Health, 27:7, 829-845.

Barz, M., Parschau, L., Warner, L.M., Lange, D., Fleig, L., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). Planning and preparatory actions facilitate physical activity maintenance. Psychology in Sports and Exercise.

Carvalho, T., Alvarez, M.J., Barz, M., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). Preparatory behavior for condom use among heterosexual young men: A longitudinal mediation model. Health Education and Behavior. Published online: 02 July2014.DOI: 10.1177/1090198114537066

Craciun, C., Schüz, N., Lippke, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2012). A mediator model of sunscreen use: A longitudinal analysis of social-cognitive predictors and mediators. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 19, 65-72. doi: 10.1007/s12529-011-9153-x

Chiu, C.Y., Lynch, R. T., Chan, F., & Berven, N. L. (2011). The Health Action Process Approach as a motivational model for physical activity self-management for people with multiple sclerosis: A path analysis.  Rehabilitation Psychology, Vol 56(3), 171-181. doi: 10.1037/a0024583

Ernsting, A., Schwarzer, R., Lippke, S., & Schneider, M., (2013). I don’t need a flu shot because I lead a healthy lifestyle: Compensatory health beliefs make vaccination less likely. Journal of Health Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1359105312455076

Ernsting, A., Schneider, M., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). The Enabling Effect of Social Support on Vaccination Uptake via Self-Efficacy and Planning. Psychology, Health & Medicine.

Evers, A., Klusmann, V., Schwarzer, R., & Heuser, I. (2012). Adherence to physical and mental activity interventions: Coping plans as a mediator and prior adherence as a moderator. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17, 477-491. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8287.2011.02049.x

Evers, A., Klusmann, V., Ziegelmann, J. P., Schwarzer, R., & Heuser, I. (2012). Long-term adherence to a physical activity intervention: The role of telephone-assisted vs. self-administered coping plans and strategy use. Psychology & Health, 27, 784-797. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2011.582114

Fleig, L., Kerschreiter, R., Schwarzer,R., Pomp, S., &  Lippke, S. (2014). “Sticking to a healthy diet is easier for me when I exercise regularly”: Cognitive transfer between physical exercise and healthy nutrition. Psychology & Health 06/2014; DOI:10.1080/08870446.2014.930146

Fleig, L., Lippke, S., Pomp, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2011). Intervention effects of exercise self-regulation on physical exercise and eating fruits and vegetables: A longitudinal study in orthopedic and cardiac rehabilitation. Preventive Medicine, 53, 182-187. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.06.019

Godinho, C., Alvarez, M. J., Lima, M. L., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). Will is Not Enough: Coping Planning and Action Control as Mediators in the Prediction of Fruit and Vegetable Intake. British Journal of Health Psychology. DOI:10.1111/bjhp.12084

Gellert, P., Krupka, S., Ziegelmann, J. P., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). An Age-Tailored Intervention Sustains Physical Activity Changes in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine.  ONLINE 17 July 2013.  DOI 10.1007/s12529-013-9330-1

Gholami, M., Lange, D., Luszczynska, A., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2013). A dietary planning intervention increases fruit consumption in Iranian women. Appetite, 63, 1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.12.005

Gutiérrez-Doña, B., Lippke, S., Renner, B., Kwon, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2009). How self-efficacy and planning predict dietary behaviors in Costa Rican and South Korean women: A moderated mediation analysis. Applied Psychology: Health & Well-Being, 1(1), 91–104.

Koring, M., Richert, J., Lippke, S., Parschau, L., Reuter, T., & Schwarzer, R. (2012). Synergistic effects of planning and self-efficacy on physical activity. Health Education & Behavior, 39, 152-158. doi: 10.1177/1090198111417621

Koring, M., Richert, J., Parschau, L., Ernsting, A., Lippke, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2012). A combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity: Effectiveness and working mechanisms? Psychology, Health & Medicine, 17, 488-498. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2011.608809

Koring, M., Parschau, L., Lange, D., Fleig, L., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2013). Preparing for physical activity: Pedometer acquisition as a self-regulatory strategy. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 5, 136-147. doi:10.1111/aphw.12003.

Kreausukon, P., Gellert, P., Lippke, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2012). Planning and self-efficacy can increase fruit and vegetable consumption: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 443-451. doi: 10.1007/s10865-011-9373-1

Lange, D., Richert, J., Koring, M., Knoll, N., Schwarzer, R., & Lippke, S. (2013). Self-regulation prompts can increase fruit consumption: A one-hour randomized controlled online trial. Psychology & Health. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2012.751107

Lippke, S., & Ziegelmann, J. P. (2008). Theory-based health behavior change: Developing, testing and applying theories for evidence-based interventions. Applied Psychology: International Review, 57, 698-716.

Lippke, S., Wiedemann, A. U., Ziegelmann, J. P., Reuter, T., & Schwarzer, R. (2009). Self-efficacy moderates the mediation of intentions into behavior via plans. American Journal of Health Behavior, 33(5), 521-529.

Luszczynska, A., Mazurkiewicz, M., Ziegelmann J. P., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Recovery self-efficacy and intention as predictors of running or jogging behavior: A cross-lagged panel analysis over a two-year period. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 247-260.

Luszczynska, A., Tryburcy, M., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Improving fruit and vegetable consumption: A self-efficacy intervention compared to a combined self-efficacy and planning intervention. Health Education Research, 22, 630-638.

Parschau, L., Richert, J., Koring, M., Ernsting, A., Lippke, S. & Schwarzer, R. (2012). Changes in social-cognitive variables are associated with stage transitions in physical activity. Health Education Research, 27, 129-140. doi: 10.1093/her/cyr085

Parschau, L., Fleig, L., Koring, M., Lange, D., Knoll, N.,Schwarzer, R., & Lippke, S. (2012). Positive experience, self-efficacy, and action control predict physical activity changes: A moderated mediation analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8287.2012.02099.x

Parschau, L., Barz, M., Richert, J., Knoll, N., Lippke, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). Physical Activity among Adults with Obesity: Testing the Health Action Process Approach. Rehabilitation Psychology, 59, 42-49. doi: 10.1037/a0035290

Payaprom, Y., Bennett, P., Alabaster, E., & Tantipong, H. (2011). Using the Health Action Process Approach and Implementation Intention to increase flu vaccination uptake in high risk Thai individuals: A controlled before-after trial. Health Psychology, 1-10. doi: 10.1037/a0023580.

Radtke T, Scholz U, Keller R, Hornung R (2011). Smoking is ok as long as I eat healthily: Compensatory health beliefs and their role for intentions and smoking within the Health Action Process Approach.Psychology and Health, 27(Suppl 2): 91-107.

Renner, B., Kwon, S., Yang, B.-H., Paik, K-C., Kim, S. H., Roh, S., Song, J., Schwarzer, R. (2008). Social-cognitive predictors of dietary behaviors in         South Korean men and women. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(1), 4-13.

Renner, B., Spivak, Y., Kwon, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Does age make a difference? Predicting physical activity of South Koreans. Psychology and Aging, 22, 482-493.

Reuter, T., Ziegelmann, J. P., Wiedemann, A. U., & Lippke, S. (2008). Dietary planning as a mediator of the intention-behavior relation: An experimental-causal-chain design. Applied Psychology: An International Review. Special Issue: Health and Well-Being, 57, 194-297.

Reyes Fernández, B., Montenegro- Montenegro, E., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). Self-efficacy, Action Control, and Social Support Explain Physical Activity Changes among Costa Rican Older Adults. Journal of Physical Activity & Health. DOI:10.1123/jpah.2013-0175

Scholz, U., Nagy, G., Schüz, B., & Ziegelmann, J. P. (2008). The role of motivational and volitional factors for self-regulated running training: Associations on the between- and within-person level. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47(3), 421-439.

Scholz, U., Schüz, B., Ziegelmann, J. P., Lippke, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2008). Beyond behavioural intentions: Planning mediates between intentions and physical activity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 479-494.

Scholz, U., Sniehotta, F. F., Schüz, B., & Oeberst, A. (2007). Dynamics in self-regulation: Plan-execution self-efficacy and mastery of action plans. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 2706-2725.

Schüz, B., Sniehotta, F. F., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Stage-specific effects of an action control intervention on dental flossing. Health Education Research, 22, 332-341.

Schüz, B., Sniehotta, F. F., Mallach, N., Wiedemann, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2009). Predicting transitions from preintentional, intentional and actional stages of change: Adherence to oral self-care recommendations. Health Education Research. 24 (1), 64-75.

Schwarzer, R. (2008). Modeling health behavior change: How to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57(1), 1-29.

Schwarzer, R. (2008). Models of health behaviour change: Intention as mediator or stage as moderator? Psychology & Health, 23(3), 259-263. DOI: 10.1080/08870440801889476

Schwarzer, R. (2008). Some burning issues in research on health behavior change. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 84-93.

Schwarzer, R. (2014). Life and death of health behavior theories. Health Psychology Review, 8, 53-56. doi:10.1080/17437199.2013.810959

Schwarzer, R. (2014): Some retirees remain active: a commentary on Sniehotta, Presseau and Araújo-Soares. Health Psychology Review, DOI: 10.1080/17437199.2014.898407

Schwarzer, R. (2014). Health action process approach. In R. C. Eklund & G. Tenenbaum (Eds.), Encyclopedia of sport and exercise psychology (pp 325-229). London: Sage.

Schwarzer, R., Antoniuk, A., & Gholami, M. (2014). A brief intervention changing oral self-care, self-efficacy, and self-monitoring. British Journal of Health Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12091

Schwarzer, R., & Luszczynska, A. (2007). Self-efficacy. In M. Gerrard & K. D. McCaul (Eds.), Health behavior constructs: Theory, measurement, and research. National Cancer Institute Website. Retrieved June 11, 2008 from

Schwarzer, R., & Luszczynska, A., (2008). How to overcome health-compromising behaviors: The health action process approach. European Psychologist, 2, 141-151. DOI: 10.1027/1016-9040.13.2.141

Schwarzer, R., Lippke, S., & Ziegelmann, J. P. (2008). Health action process approach: A research agenda at the Freie Universität Berlin to examine and promote health behavior change. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, 16, 157-160. DOI: 10.1026/0943-8149.16.3.157

Schwarzer, R., Luszczynska, A., Ziegelmann, J. P., Scholz, U., & Lippke, S. (2008). Social-cognitive predictors of physical exercise adherence: Three longitudinal studies in rehabilitation. Health Psychology, 27(1, Suppl.), S54-S63.

Schwarzer, R., Schüz, B., Ziegelmann, J. P., Lippke, S., Luszczynska, A., & Scholz, U. (2007). Adoption and maintenance of four health behaviors: Theory-guided longitudinal studies on dental flossing, seat belt use, dietary behavior, and physical activity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 156-166.

Schwarzer, R. (2011). Health behavior change. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), Oxford handbook of health psychology (pp. 591-611). New York: Oxford University Press.

Schwarzer, R., Lippke, S., & Luszczynska, A. (2011). Mechanisms of health behavior change in persons with chronic illness or disability: The health action process approach (HAPA). Rehabilitation Psychology, 56, 161-170. doi: 10.1037/a0024509

Schwarzer, R. & Luszczynska, A. (2015). Health Action Process Approach. In M. Conner, & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviours (pp.252-278). 3rd edition. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw Hill Open University Press.

Sniehotta, F. F., Nagy, G., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). The role of action control in implementing intentions during the first weeks of behaviour change. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45(1), 87-106.

Sniehotta, F. F., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Action plans and coping plans for physical exercise: A longitudinal intervention study in cardiac rehabilitation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 23-37.

Teng, Y. & Mak ,W. W. S. (2011). The Role of Planning and Self-Efficacy in Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: An Application of the Health Action Process Approach Model. Health Psychology, 2011, 30, 119–128. DOI: 10.1037/a0022023

Warner, Lisa M.; Schüz, Benjamin; Wolff, Julia K.; Parschau, Linda; Wurm, Susanne; Schwarzer, Ralf Sources of self-efficacy for physical activity. Health Psychology, Apr 7 , 2014, No Pagination Specified. doi: 10.1037/hea0000085

Wiedemann, A. U., Schüz, B., Sniehotta, F.F., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2009). Disentangling the relation between intentions, planning, and behaviour: A moderated mediation analysis. Psychology & Health, 24 (1), 67-79.

Wiedemann, A. U., Lippke, S., Reuter, T., Ziegelmann, J. P., & Schüz, B. (2011). The more the better? The number of plans predicts health behaviour change. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3, 87-106. DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01042.x

Ziegelmann, J. P., & Lippke, S. (2007). Planning and strategy use in health behavior change: A life span view. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 30-39.

Ziegelmann, J. P., & Lippke, S. (2007). Use of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies in health self-regulation: Interplay with resources and successful development. Journal of Aging and Health, 19, 500-518.

Ziegelmann, J. P., Luszczynska, A., Lippke, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Are goal intentions or implementation intentions better predictors of health behavior? A longitudinal study in orthopedic rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52, 97-102.

Zhou, G., Gan, Y., Ke, Q., Knoll, N., Lonsdale, C., & Schwarzer, R. (2016). Avoiding exposure to air pollution by using filtering facemask respirators: An application of the Health Action Process Approach. Health Psychology, 35, 141-147.{{ doi: 10.1037/hea0000264}}