The InterPsych Newsletter 2(1)




                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

     Section 0:     INDEX

     Section A:     EDITORIAL
                    The sky is falling or the ground is rising:
                    Perspectives on changes in the Internet
                    Sean P. Sullivan, Editor-in-Chief

     Section B:     INTRODUCTION
                    1.   Introduction to IPN
                    2.   IPN Charter

                    1.   InterPsych Update
                    2.   SIG Update:
                         Traumatic Stress
                    3.   SIG list

     Section D:     ARTICLE
                    U.S. Health Care Reform and the Therapeutic
                    State,            Jeffrey A. Schaler, Ph.D.

     Section E:     RESOURCE UPDATE
                    1.   Scientific articles on ALTERED STATES
                         OF CONSCIOUSNESS - PARAPSYCHOLOGY -
                         HYPNOSIS - TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY -
                         HUMAN POTENTIAL - MEDITATION
                    2.   HEALTH INFOCOM NEWSLETTER

     Section F:     CALENDAR

     Section G:     ANNOUNCEMENTS

     Section H:     EMPLOYMENT



Editor-in-Chief:    Sean P. Sullivan
Managing Editors:   Sunkyo Kwon       Joseph Plaud
Assistant Editors:  Lori Beth Bisbey  Stephanie A. Dobler
                    Fred Cutter       John M. Grohol
                    Gina Jozaitis     Burt Knight
                    Jeffry Luria      Nancy Tice

The InterPsych Newsletter,  ISSN 1355-2562, is an electronic
publication of InterPsych.  The newsletter is distributed on
a monthly basis free of charge to all members of InterPsych.

InterPsych  does not hold itself responsible for statements
made  in the  InterPsych Newsletter by contributors.  Unless
stated otherwise,  the material in the InterPsych Newsletter
does not reflect the endorsement,  attitude, or position  of
the Board of Directors  of InterPsych  or the editors of the
InterPsych Newsletter.

InterPsych  is  a  non-profit,   voluntary     organization,
established  on  Mailbase  with  the aim of promoting inter-
national   scholarly collaboration   on   inter-disciplinary
research efforts in the field of mental health.

To  enquire about the  InterPsych Newsletter,  please send a
message to Sean P. Sullivan (


THE INTERPSYCH NEWSLETTER                      AUG-OCT, 1994

                    SECTION A: EDITORIAL


Over  20 years ago what is today the Internet was born out of
a U.S. Defense Department network called  ARPAnet.  Deemed to
be  unsuitable   for defense  purposes  due to  concerns over
security breaches, the network was turned over to the private
sector.   Since this time,  it has blossomed into a worldwide
aggregation of information  and people that has redefined the
way information is used and disseminated.

Already  electronic communication has changed  and shaped the
world.  During the soviet coup in 1991, coup leaders were un-
able to restrict access to information  after seizing control
of   media outlets  as  soviet citizens  used  e-mail and fax
machines  to  communicate  with  the outside world. While the
Internet's impact has already been enormous, great changes in
its accessibility and makeup are occurring  that will reshape
the role of the Internet in our lives.  Concurrently, we must
begin  the process of redefining  not just what  the Internet
is, but what it can be.

To date,  the Internet has been marked,  and in fact defined,
by an overall lack of planning and organization that has made
finding  information difficult to impossible.   The amount of
information currently available on the Internet is stunning -
from complete transcripts  of  all  Monty Python  episodes to
images  taken  from  weather satellites within the last hour.

Although no one disputes the wealth of information available,
problems have existed finding and accessing this information.
In the past, information was often found by word of mouth, by
reading extensive lists, or by simply stumbling upon it. More
recently,   software  has been  developed  allowing  Internet
applications to be run on the desktop as opposed to mainframe
terminals.   One such application is  NCSA's Mosaic, a World-
Wide Web client which permits hypertext searches.  One of the
reasons Mosaic has been so immensely popular  is the relative
ease  with which  one can navigate through the net.  With the
advent of this and similar software,  information is both ex-
panding and becoming more  accessible. Consider that current-
ly, in part due to the lack of user-friendly interfaces, most
people's Internet literacy is limited to electronic mail.  As
navigation  of the Internet  becomes more straightforward for
the lay person, the way we communicate  and share information
and the Internet itself will be radically altered.

In addition to  changes in the ease of accessing information,
the makeup of the people on-line is also changing.  Previous-
ly, the Internet was dominated by experienced net-surfers and
new users,  or "newbies",  were treated as such and 
initiated into the ways of the net. Daily more locations gain 
access to the net and computer prices drop, and the number of 
users grows almost  exponentially. Imagine taking a city of 2
million people and adding 10 million!  While it is clear this
will  irrevocably  change  the Internet,   it  also  presents
tremendous opportunities.

As  the Internet changes  from being  a novelty to  being  an
important part  of everyday communication,  we must strive to
create  new and innovative  uses for the Internet.   Suddenly
communication is not limited by distance or time.  Instead of
the  latest clinical information  being discussed  in letters
and  brief  reports  in  journals,   people  have  access  to
electronic mail  groups,   such as  the  many  that have been
organized  on  InterPsych,    and can  confer with colleagues
around  the  globe  instantly.  Imagine  how the Internet can
change  the  everyday life  of someone  with  mental illness.
Whereas previously someone living with manic depression in an
isolated,  rural area would have an impossible time finding a
support network outside of friends and family,  now that net-
work is available on his or her desktop. The effect that this
type of cultural cross-fertilization will have on disciplines
such   as  mental  health   and  the  world   in  general  is
inconceivable.  As  a new generation of users  is introduced,
our goal should be to promote the utilization of the Internet
in ways never even imagined.

The Internet was designed to be a system  that has nothing to
do with the way that it is currently used.   For this reason,
it  often  appears disjointed and chaotic  (in fact,  it is).
Sadly,  it is  one of both the banes and the beauties that so
little organization  and regulation exists.   As the Internet
grows, so its unbridled manner will shrink.  Currently, there
is  a strong resistance  in the Internet community to change.
On the threshold of a new era in usage,  we must be pragmatic
about planning for the future  and  encourage  the growth  of
the Internet. In addition to changes accessibility, we face a
time  when NSF will start  charging for  access  to backbone,
accounts  will  need to be licensed to ensure accountability,
and  restrictions will be  imposed on what information can be
transmitted.    For  better or worse,    these  changes   are
inevitable,  and  to ensure that they are for the better,  we
must  decide  not only to embrace them  but  to shape them as
well.  If  we plan for the future,   we will  find the future
is now.                                          [SPS]




The  InterPsych (IP)  enterprise  is  an  astounding phenomenon:
Few  if  any  lists on  the information  superhighway  have been
able to  accomplish  so  much  in  terms of  recruiting members,
productivity in discussions,  and  proliferation  of information
in the  field of mental health  within  such a short time frame.

The InterPsych Newsletter (IPN)  has  evolved  out of the IP and
- after a pregnant-productive pause - presents itself to the IP-
based  and  larger   "virtual  audience"   now with a new staff,
format, and mission.  This section is devoted to explain you the
crux of its objectives.

With the advent of IP, you might notice more people - previously
not  connected  to such a powerful medium  - proudly remark that
they've  returned  to 20-500 messages  in their mailbox  after a
short absence.  While this has been a fad for quite some time in
other fields, the IP has been a key player in awarding many more
mental  health  professionals   this  credential  of  social and
academic reputability.

Informational  overflow  presses  each one of us  to make  rapid
decisions  on  which  messages  to acknowledge,   which ones  to
peruse, which ones to ignore.  Most messages that are killed are
boring,  unrelated to one's own activities,  annoying or deleted
simply for lack of time to read (or think).

Like mainstream social sciences are committed  to convey complex
information  in a few aggregate numbers,  information explosions
on "the net" have led to lists, exclusively devoted to 
reporting developments  on  the  internet as a whole  or zooming  
in on specific facets, like ascend groups, the world-wide web or
gophers.  There are also possibilities  to monitor the emergence
of new lists and to request automatically compiled summaries  of
a day's communication on a given discussion forum.

The  newly established  InterPsych Newsletter devotes itself  to
reduce some  of this complexity,  while  providing readers  with
additional  insights   from more analytical perspectives  and  a
landscape  view   of  the  world  of   electronically  delivered
information  as it relates  to  research and practice  of mental
health.   As  we  believe  that  compiling  lists of topics  and
resources  will  be  too  simplistic  and  pasting   substantial
information  on  mental health - real or virtual - too long,  we
have opted for a healthy mixture of digests,  news,  information
and original contributions.

The  Charter of the InterPsych Newsletter follows. As the IPN is
chiefly delivered in e-mailable format and produced by voluntary
efforts,  restrictions had to be made  with regard to length  of
contributions.  However, the IPN strives for highest quality and
the same depth as comparable hardcopy parallels, while adding to
bandwidth,  precisely because it relies on  electronically based
resources and a highly committed, enthusiastic staff.  It is the
IPN's endeavor to provide you with time-saving summaries, up-to-
date information  and metaperspectives on voices from the net.

Still,  readers of the IPN  may be initially appalled by overall
size, but do keep in mind  that it spares you from going through
several thousands of lines instead and multiple messages. In the
interest  of  making reading easier  we  have sent  sections  as
separate files  so that readers may access sections they want to
read  or delete  those they do not want more quickly.   Also, we
suggest printing IPN for easier reading.

So  do  bear in mind  for  forthcoming IPN issues:   Don't reach
out for the delete-key too quickly - I'm  useful.           [SK]


              *InterPsych Newsletter Charter*

   The  mission of  the InterPsych Newsletter  is  to
   facilitate  the  formation  of  an  international,
   multidisciplinary community committed to advancing
   research,  theory,  and  practice in  the field of
   mental health.   It is  our aim  to inform  and to
   promote  discussion  among  professionals  in  all
   mental-health-related fields  in the  belief  that
   the    electronic-network-based    delivery     of
   information  and cooperation of sundry disciplines
   will contribute to  advancements in the field.  To
   this end, the newsletter aims to promote:

   1)   involvement in Interpsych and its continuing
   2)   dissemination of health-care information
   3)   international discussion and collaboration,
   4)   utilization of current resources on the
   5)   creation of new and innovative uses of the
   6)   theoretical and empirical research.

                           SECTION C:
| This section serves to foster awareness among InterPsych's |
| members of discussions  in different SIGs and to encourage |
| people  to  become  active  in  InterPsych.   This section |
| contains  two  general  article  types:  a) Short articles |
| discussing   current  developments   at   Interpsych   and |
| b) summaries of recent discussions in the SIGs.            |
| If  you are  interested  in writing  a summary for a group |
| that you belong to, please contact Sean Sullivan:          |
| (                                 |
| To comment on an article in this section, send a message to|
| the IPN Mailbox (                |


The Mailbase host that served as the initiating agency for the
psychiatry SIG that eventually spawned InterPsych and its SIGs
decided  to withdraw  its support as  the host  for InterPsych
(IP). The rationale for  this  decision is  that the number of
British subscribers  to the IP  lists  is relatively low  when
compared  with  American  subscribers.   Specifically, Cristyn
Emmett (  of Mailbase said that
the total number of IP members is 6144.   The number of non-UK
members is  5825. These numbers were put forward in support of
the decision by Mailbase to withdraw its support from IP.

Although many   individuals,  such  as  the  President  of IP,
Dr. Martin Seligman, and the founder of IP, Mr. Ian Pitchford,
as  well  as  multidisciplinary  professionals   voiced  sound
arguments for the appropriateness of Mailbase  to continue its
support for IP, the Mailbase administrators decided to give IP
until December 31, 1994 to find a new host.  Since that period
several  ideas  have been circulated about  a new home for IP,
including  employing listservs at different institutions.  The
American Psychological Association also  expressed interest in
hosting InterPsych, and Dr. Joseph J. Plaud, list-owner of the
clinical-psychology  SIG,  explored  the  possibility  of  the
University of North Dakota  hosting  IP.   At  this point, the
consensus  appears  to be  to proceed  slowly  and  cautiously
before making decisions on the fate of  InterPsych.  One thing
appears certain, though:  InterPsych will continue to grow and
foster  an  active exchange  of ideas and opinions.  Finding a
permanent location for hosting InterPsych's functions seems to
be  a matter of  identifying  the most logical next step,  and
proceeding full steam.                                   [JJP]



Below are summaries by list-owners for some of the SIGs that
InterPsych sponsors.


There have been a number of recent topics on the Clinical
Psychology list which have greatly piqued the interest of
the list's members.   In the past two weeks,  the  topics
that have dominated the list's discussion have surrounded
the  ongoing   political  controversy  of  the   American
Psychological  Association's   elections  -  carried   on
between Lew Lipsitt  and Kurt Salzinger,   the covariance
between  genes and the environment  in  disorders such as
obesity  and hypertension,   and  the  largest  topic  of
debate,   the  effects  of a proposal to  "immunize" pre-
teenagers  against depression  with  Cognitive Behavioral
Therapy (CAT) techniques.

This last subject is perhaps the most intriguing.  Martin
Seligman  began  the  debate  with  his  suggestion  that
preteens, aged 10-12 YO, who are at risk of depression be
taught some cognitive behavioral therapy (CAT) techniques
that might help reduce the incidence of depression.  This
is not  a new idea,  which has been suggested  by various
studies    conducted  on  this  so-called   "immunization
effect".  However,  Seligman's proposal on is new and was
criticized  by others on the list,  especially  and  most
thoroughly by Jeffrey Schaler. In a detailed rejoinder to
Seligman's  initial   and  follow-up   article,   Schaler
examined   some  of  the   wide-ranging  implications  of
Seligman's seemingly-innocuous proposal. Tor Neilands and
David Fresco  also  contributed  to  the  thoughtful  and
thought-provoking debate, which touches upon the need  of
preventive medicine, research, law, ethics, and morality.

The  merits of  clinical  vs. counseling psychology  were
also  debated.   Many  clinical psychologists  felt  that
counselors are often not properly trained in a scientist-
practitioner model,  and  gave examples  to support their
positions.  Counselors  and social workers  responded  by
saying that broad generalizations shouldn't be made,  and
some even  said  they were  better qualified  to  conduct
psychotherapy.  No consensus was reached.

The positions of Chomsky and others were  put forth  as a
way of debating  the position of Skinner  and his alleged
theoretical  shortcomings  (particularly  as  applied  to
understanding  verbal  behavior).   The  strengths  of  a
Skinnerian argument were persuasive.           [JMG, JJP]


After  some  interesting discussion  on the  evolutionary
adaptiveness  of depressotypic  behavior,  the Depression
SIG has simmered down of late.

Members are invited  to share recent research or thoughts
regarding mood disorders,   including but not limited to:
neurobiological    and    psychological    vulnerability;
personality and depression;  consequences  of depression;
description of depression;  and  co-morbidity  with other
disorders.               [Contributor: Dr. Thomas Joiner]


We're hovering at about 400 members.   Dr. Seligman and I
are  stepping  up   our  efforts  to  get  us  through  a
discussion dry spell.  Some pretty big names in the field
of helplessness have joined or have expressed interest in

We   will  soon begin  two  new  types  of  discussion:
1)  Discussion  of in progress work  related to helpless-
ness and 2) Theoretical target articles  and  responses -
but  not  as  formal  as  an  E-journal.    Also    under
consideration, but probably too preliminary to hype are a
Helplessness gopher site and WWW Page.
                          [Contributor: Dr. David Fresco]


The psychopharmacology list  has been averaging  about 10
messages a day.   We now have  about 400 members  from 16

Recent  discussions  have been  on such  topics as: with-
drawal syndromes  following the discontinuation of  anti-
depressants;   the  combined  use  of  psychotherapy  and
psychopharmacology; psychotherapeutic agents mentioned in
Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy,  the use of narcotics for
the treatment of  people with depressions;   the combined
use  of  antipsychotics and Psychostimulants;  the use of
once a month  fluoxetine (Prozac)  for  the treatment  of
women with severe PMS.
                         [Contributor: Dr. Ivan Goldberg]


The Psychiatry mailing list is the special interest group
(SIG)  that most people join  when they first learn about
InterPsych.   It  is  the  most general  and  the   least
specialized of the InterPsych SIGs.

The communications  of the Psychiatry group  have  ranged
from general information-seeking  to on-line debates on a
wide variety of topics,  with a stimulating,  refreshing,
and  sometimes startling mixture of perspectives  offered
by   clinicians,    patients,    students,   researchers,
educators,   and  many  others.   Many  people   actively
participate in group discussions, others choose to simply
observe; some use the group to gather information, others
use it to develop collaborative networks;   some find the
discussions in the psychiatry group too wide-ranging  and
opt  for one or  more  narrower focused  InterPsych SIGs;
others find it just to their liking.

In my opinion, the Psychiatry SIG has played  -  and will
likely continue to play - two very key roles in the rapid
growth of InterPsych.  First, it has been an  "on-ramp to
the information highway" for many people who are learning
for  the  first  time   about  Internet  applications  in
psychiatry  and  psychology;   second, many of the ideas,
interests,   and even some dissatisfactions voiced in the
Psychiatry SIG  have propelled  the development  of other
SIGs.  These  two roles serve  to recruit and educate new
members,   and also  to stimulate further differentiation
and development of InterPsych.
                       [Contributor: Dr. Charles Stinson]


Our  membership is now approaching 600.   The  number  of
messages per day varies from 1-10.  Most recent topics of
discussion  have  included  research and treatment issues
associated  with false memory syndrome,   EMDR,   and the
rescue and emotional recovery of  those affected  by  the
Estonia ship disaster  that resulted  in the death of 900
Swedes, Estonians, and others. The tone on the network is
always   constructive,    friendly,    respectful,    and
encouraging.    We are especially pleased to have members
from countries outside North America and Europe.    There
are  a number of study groups led by senior scholars  and
clinicians working with  more junior members  from places
with  few resources  for developing skills and  knowledge
in the area of traumatology. New members are welcome.
                        [Contributor: Dr. Charles Figley]


| The  following is a list  of  current  InterPsych Special |
| Interest  Groups (SIGs).    In this issue, we are listing |
| all of the SIGs.  In subsequent issues, we will only list |
| new SIGs that have been formed.    The name of each group |
| precedes a short description of the group.                |
| To join any of these lists, send a message to             |
| MAILBASE@MAILBASE.AC.UK with the body: join NAME.OF       |
| GROUP YOUR.FIRST.NAME YOUR.LAST.NAME.                     |
| To leave any list send                                    |
| a message to MAILBASE@MAILBASE.AC.UK with the body: leave |
| NAME.OF.GROUP.                                            |

     This list welcomes discussion on Bowlby-Ainsworth's
     theory of attachment. From theoretical and
     philosophical issues, to clinical or applied
     issues. Particular emphasis is given to
     socio-affective and defensive processes, and
     unconscious representations.

     This list promotes the exchange of ideas on matters
     relevant to clinical psychology, and particularly
     to the practice of clinical psychology.

     A forum for the discussion of issues related to the
     field of Applied Psychophysiology, Medical
     Psychology and Biofeedback.  The list's primary
     purpose is to allow professionals - psychiatrists,
     nurses, psychologists, social workers, other
     medical personnel to share ideas about clinical

     The Child Psychiatry list is devoted to the
     discussion of various issues around Child and
     Adolescent Psychiatry. This includes treatment
     issues, psychopharmacology, inpatient/outpatient
     care plans, emergency child/adolescent psychiatry

     This forum exists for scholarly discussion of
     issues related to mood disorders in clinical and
     research settings. Integrative biological-
     psychological contributions are particularly
     welcome. Topics include causation, correlates,
     consequences, co-morbidity, treatment/prevention,

     We encourage the broad discussion of all topics -
     medical, psychotherapeutic,social,legal - that
     relate to the practice  of Emergency Psychiatry. We
     invite mental health professionals, students, and
     users to contribute their research, clinical
     wisdom, questions, and personal experiences.

     To serve as a forum for the scholarly and collegial
     discussion of issues in forensic psychiatry.

     Learned Helplessness and Explanatory Style was
     created to discuss the latest research on animals
     and humans, biological substratum, depression,
     anxiety, prevention, CAVE, politics, children,
     personal control, health, battering, bereavement,
     PTSD, sex differences, pessimism, work,

     A closed forum for debate amongst those responsible
     for the administration of InterPsych, including
     trustees, members of the board of directors and
     advisory board, journal and newsletter editors and
     associate editors, regional representatives,
     committee members, and other staff and volunteers.

     If you want to help develop InterPsych send a note
     outlining your experience.

     All contributions relevant to Managed Behavioural
     HealthCare are welcomed. A particular emphasis is
     the development of multidisciplinary
     outpatient-based treatment provider groups.
     Discussion topics include: best clinical practices,
     outcomes research, insurance, case management, and

11.  PSY-ART
     This list deals with the psychological study of the
     arts, especially literature and film. Most of us
     apply psychoanalysis, but some of us use cognitive
     science, experimental psychology, or reader-
     response studies. We welcome comments from any
     psychological orientation.

     This list is for discussion of current issues in
     Psychiatry, Clinical Psychology and related fields.
     Topics might include Provision of Mental Health
     Services; Ethical Issues; Professional Development/
     Training; Public Image of Psychiatry and
     Psychology; and The future of Mental Health

     Many research findings and viewpoints in psychiatry
     are controversial,leaving a gulf between those
     pursuing radically different approaches to mental
     illness. This forum will act as a bridge between
     those taking a biomedical approach and those taking
     a psychodynamic approach.

     This sublist focuses on research and clinical
     issues related to use of psychological tests
     (including traditional clinical instruments &
     normal personality measures) in psychiatry and
     clinical psychology.

     This list is intended for those who wish to
     co-operate in the compilation of a resource guide
     to enable clinicians and academics in the areas of
     psychiatry and abnormal psychology to gain maximum
     benefit from the facilities available over the

     This list is designed to promote dialogue about
     psychoanalysis in all its aspects including
     clinical practice, psychoanalytic theory,
     education, organizational issues, relations with
     other disciplines, and applications to the
     humanities, social sciences and public policy.

     The purpose of the Psychopharmacology mailing list
     is to provide a forum for the professional
     discussion of all aspects of clinical
     psychopharmacology.  Clinical psychopharmacology is
     broadly defined as the treatment individuals with
     psychiatric disorders through the use of
     psychotropic medications. All mental health
     professionals, and graduate students may subscribe
     to the Psychopharmacology Mailing List.

     For discussions related to language and
     psychopathology. Discussions could include:
     theories of language and their relevance for the
     study of psychopathological speech, new research
     and publications in the area, requests for help
     with one's own research.

     Discussion of the delivery of mental health
     services to diverse cultures. Topics may include,
     cultural differences in views on mental disorders,
     culture-specific syndromes, collaboration between
     Western and traditional healers, and cultural
     variance in symptoms.

     This list promotes the investigation, assessment,
     and treatment of the immediate and long-term
     psychosocial, biophysiological, and existential
     consequences of highly stressful (traumatic)
     events. Of special interest are efforts to identify
     a cure of PTSD (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder)

                    SECTION D: ARTICLE

| In   this  section  is  an  non-reviewed  article |
| submitted  by Dr. Schaler.    In the future, this |
| section  will  be  devoted  to  refereed research |
| articles.   To submit an article to this section, |
| please  send  an  ASCII version of the manuscript |
| to the IPN Mailbox (    |


                 Jeffrey A. Schaler

"What  has allowed us to get to the point where mental
illness and substance abuse  services  are  viewed  as
essential components  of a comprehensive medical bene-
fit package,"   explains  Tipper  Gore,   holder  of a
master's degree in  psychology and wife of  Vice Pres.
Gore, is that as a country, "we have come to recognize
that mental and addictive disorders  are  real medical
disorders just like other physical illnesses; they are
diagnosable and treatable," (1). Ms. Gore says that 23
percent of people  between  the ages of 15 and 54, and
16 percent of Americans ages 65 and older, suffer from
"depression."   Five  percent of  all  children  under
the  age  of 8 have  "severe  emotional  disturbances"
and  at  least  10 percent  of children  in  the  U.S.
manifest a specific "learning disability."     Alcohol
use disorders  allegedly affect  approximately 23 % of
the population, and drug use disorders affect about 12
%.   On the basis of these statistics, it would appear
that 89 percent  of  the  American population  suffers
from mental and addictive disorders.  In other  words,
almost everyone  is sick.    I think  we need to  take
another  look at  the difference between mental [fake]
and physical [real] illness. For the policies  that we
implement based on explanations for behaviors and ill-
ness can vary  significantly.   "Ideas," wrote Richard
Weaver,  "have  consequences," (2).  Ms. Gore endorses
the "medical model" of behavior. She advances the idea
that  biological factors determine "mental disorders."
There  two  other explanatory models  used  by  social
scientists - and  the public  is generally unaware  of
that. Psychological models  focus on  self-environment
interaction.  Those  may include  free-will  oriented,
existential perspectives on human behavior, as well as
deterministic approaches  such  as psychoanalysis  and
behaviorism.    Those  may  also  include  volitional-
learning approaches such as social-cognitive theory.

   Sociocultural  models  explain  abnormal behaviors
through  norms  and  mores.     Those  proponents  may
question  the  existence  of  mental  disorders, i.e.,
that  they  are  social  inventions,   not  scientific
discoveries. For example,  they view homelessness as a
socioeconomic problem.   Ms. Gore sees it as untreated
mental illness.   What we may do  [or won't do]  about
homelessness  varies  by the explanation  that we give
for it. It's important for the public to realize  that
psychology and psychiatry are not "hard" sciences like
chemistry  or  engineering.   Behavior is choice,  the
function of moral agency.  Thus, the state should con-
sider  the  view that  mental  disorders  are   unlike
physical illnesses, before it gets too involved in the
"diagnosis"  and  "treatment"  field.   There are good
arguments  against the idea  that  mental illness  and
addictive  disorders   even   exist.   Certainly,  the
medical model dominates public  policy.    However, by
scrutinizing  mental and physical illness  we may con-
clude that the two are quite different.  Policy makers
should  take  these  points   in  consideration.   For
example,    mental   and   addictive   disorders   are
"diagnosed" and "treated" based  on symptoms,  or sub-
jective  complaints.   Medical  disorders  are usually
diagnosed  and  treated based on signs,   or objective

    In  mental  and addictive disorders,   people  are
designated   "patients"   against  their consent.   In
medical disorders,  treatment without consent   occurs
only in cases of unconsciousness,   for children,  and
contagious disease.   Real diseases occur in the body,
usually  involve lesions,   and are present  at death.
That's  not true  for mental and addictive  disorders.
There  are no definitive lesions for any of the mental
and  addictive disorders.   Mental  and addictive dis-
orders are diagnosed  by something that  a person does
and feels,   e.g.,   acting  in  a  peculiar  fashion,
complaining of hopelessness.   Real diseases are some-
thing that a person has,  e.g.,  a  person has cancer,
diabetes, or heart disease.

     Mental and addictive disorders are  behaviors and
thus a function of personal values. Real diseases have
little to do with morality.  Clearly certain behaviors
may lead to disease:   Smoking is a behavior  that may
lead to cancer.  Heavy drinking is a behavior that may
lead to liver disease.   No matter how "good" or "bad"
people  are,   they're  equally  susceptible  to  con-
tracting a disease, e.g.,  AIDS.   Furthermore, people
can  change behaviors through desire,  but they cannot
change their disease by desiring to be  well.   People
labeled with addictive disorder  are  often  "treated"
with spiritual-conversion experience,  e.g.,  "turning
one's  life over to a higher power"  as  in Alcoholics
Anonymous.  That's not so for physical diseases. More-
over,   drug addicts get "better"  when  they  give up
heroin and cocaine. Diabetics get worse when they give
up insulin (3).   Finally, real diseases are listed in
standard textbooks on pathology.  Mental and addictive
disorders are  not.   Most  behaviors referred  to  as
mental and addictive disorders  are categorized in the
Diagnostic  and  Statistical  Manual  of  the American
Psychiatric Association as not having an organic base:
"The diagnosis is made only when it cannot be establi-
shed that an organic factor initiated  and  maintained
the  disturbance,"  here referring to "schizophrenia,"
(4).   As Thomas Szasz explains, the medicalization of
socially deviant behavior  is moralism masquerading as
medicine, (5).  The  government  has no place  telling
people how to behave, when their behavior harms no one
but themselves.   I submit that  the government has no
place  telling people  how  they  should  regard them-
selves, e.g., dictating self concept.  When government
gets involved  in  "treating" mental disorders  that's
exactly   what   it  ends up doing   -   dictating  an
"appropriate" way for people to think about themselves
and the world.   As  constitutional  scholar  Lawrence
Tribe wrote: "Not surprisingly the [Supreme] Court has
insisted that activities actually going on  within the
head are absolutely beyond  the power of government to
control.    In a society  whose  whole  constitutional
heritage rebels  at the thought  of giving the govern-
ment  the power to control men's minds,  the governing
institutions, and especially the courts, must not only
reject   direct   attempts   to   exercise   forbidden
domination over mental processes;   they must strictly
examine as  well oblique intrusions likely to produce,
or designed to produce, the same result," (6)     That
church-state entanglement  through  health-care reform
may   bring  unanticipated  conflict  regarding  First
Amendment   rights   violations  is   one  reason  why
coverage    for  mental  and  addictive  disorders  is
inappropriate. The fact that mental and addictive dis-
orders  are  quite  different  from "real" diseases is
another. The economic drain on coverage for legitimate
diseases   that  people  cannot  control   because  of
"mental-health  coverage"    is   perhaps   the   most
important, (7). While Ms. Gore,   as Mental Health Ad-
visor  to Pres. Clinton,   asserts  that  people  with
"mental illness"  and "drug addictions   are just like
those with cancer, diabetes, AIDS, and  heart disease,
a person with diabetes is hardly like a heroin addict.
Those  struggling  with cancer are  hardly like people
labeled "manic-depressive."   Psychiatry  and  psycho-
therapy should  remain  personal,  contractual engage-
ments  and belong  in the private sector,  free of any
and all state intrusion and involvement.

1.   Gore, T. (1994).  Moving policy toward medical
     reality:  Mental and addictive disorders and
     the Health Security Act.  Treatment Today,
     Vol. 6., No. 1, 6-9.
2.   Weaver, R.  (1962).  Ideas have consequences.
     Chicago:  Phoenix Books.
3.   The idea was suggested to me by Nelson Bolero,
     MD, in 1989.
4.   American Psychiatric Association.  (1987).
     DST-III-R.  Washington, D.C.; American
     Psychiatric Association, p. 187.
5.   Szasz, T. (1994).  Cruel compassion:
     Psychiatric  control of society Us unwanted.
     New York:  Wiley.
6.   Tribe, L.  (1988).  Constitutional law, 2nd
     Ed.,  p. 1315.
7.   Hilzenrath, D.S.  (1994).  The quandary over
     Mental health care costs.  The Washington
     Post, July 25, A6.


| This section is intended for articles describing |
| new resources to encourage the use of  resources |
| currently available on the net.                  |

E-1  Scientific articles available via anonymous

As an aid to education and communication, Charles
T. Tart, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at  the
Davis  campus  of  the  University of California,
internationally  known  for pioneering scientific
work in the above and related areas, is gradually
making reprints of his published journal articles
and miscellaneous papers available, via anonymous
ftp, to whoever is interested.   These are mostly
from scientific journals, but are generally quite
readable to the educated layman.   Computer users
with   access  to  the  Internet  can  access the
archive as follows:

Connect to ftp server, "".
Log in as username "anonymous".
Send your e-mail address as the ident/password string.
cd to /pub/fztart.
A "dir" command will show you what is available.
A "get" command will retrieve documents.

The file  "current-contents"  will  be updated regularly,
showing what papers are available, often with an abstract
of each.  For more information,   contact Jonathan Steven


The Health InfoCom Newsletter, issues HICN751 and
HICN752 are now available for pickup.  The table of
contents are listed below.  For more information
contact David Dodell, Editor, HICNet Medical
Newsletter (

The Health Infocom Newsletter can be requested in
one of three ways:

MOSAIC:   Asia/Pacific:  http:
          Americas: http:
          The first line of text much be:
          get /waffle/files/mednews/hicnxxx.nws

HICNet Medical News Digest      Sun, 16 Oct 1994
Volume 07 : Issue 51

Today's Topics:

  [MMWR 11 Oct 94]  Vaccination Coverage of 2-year
                    Old Children
  [MMWR]  Missed Opportunities to Vaccinate
          Pre-School Children
  [MMWR] Childhood Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
  [MMWR]  Certification of Poliomyelitis
  [MMWR]  Update: Human Plague - India, 1994
          Scientists Net Major Shrimp Allergen
          Low-Cal Diets: Can they prolong life?
HICNet Medical News Digest      Sun, 16 Oct 1994
Volume 07 : Issue 52

Today's Topics:

     Internet Availability of PEEM Guidelines
     forecasting Vector-Borne Disease.
     Armed Forces Institute of Pathology - Fall
     1994 Courses.
     AIDS Daily News Summaries.

                    SECTION F: CALENDAR

| For free listing of your conference or event, please send us|
| the  following information: dates of event,  title, sponsor,|
| location,  continuing  education  credits  (if  applicable),|
| and  the name, e-mail address,  physical address,  and phone|
| number  of a contact person.   All notices should be sent by|
| the first Friday of the month to the IPN Mailbox:           |
| (                                 |


     October 29,  Annual conference of the New York
     Center for Psychoanalytic Studies.  Fordham
     University. The subject this year is the
     narcissistic and the difficult patient in
     Psychoanalysis. (


     November 4-6, Current Topics In the Law and
     Mental Health.  The Westin Hotel, Seattle,
     Washington, USA. Sponsored by Missoula
     Psychiatric Services.  For Registration and
     Information, contact: Professionally Planned
     Ltd, Post Office Box 5626, Missoula, Montana
     59806, 406-542-7526

     November 11-13, Objectivity and Truth in the
     Natural Sciences, the Social Sciences and the
     Humanities. Boston Marriott, Cambridge, USA.
     For information call (609) 683-7878, or
     e-mail: (

     November 12-13, The 7th Symposium on
     Creativity, Psychopathology and Adaptation.
     Theme: Women and Creativity. The Department of
     Psychiatry of the Montreal General Hospital.
     Contact Cathy Tsagaroulis, Room 675, 1650
     Cedar Avenue, Montreal, P.Q. H3G 1A4.  Please
     include name, address, telephone number and
     practice/ affiliation.

     November 18-20, European Trauma Conference:
     Trauma Treatment in the 90's: Towards the 21st
     Century. Presented by the UK and Finland
     Members of the International Association of
     Trauma Counsellors. The Birch Hotel, Haywards
     Heath, Sussex, United Kingdom.  Conference is
     endorsed by Saybrook Institute.  Contact: Lori
     Beth Bisbey (,
     phone:44-342-323107.  Fax:44-342-324316.

     November 27-December 9, SOFSEM'94: XXI-st
     International Winter School on theoretical and
     practical aspects of computer science.
     Milovy, Czech Republic. Organized by Czech and
     Slovak Societies for Computer Science and
     Czech ACM Chapter SOFSEM (SOFtware SEMinar).
     Contact: (


     January 18-22, Authority, Leadership and
     Organizational Life, A Residential Conference
     sponsored by The Center for the Study of
     Groups and Social Systems, Boston Center of
     the A.K. Rice Institute, Mont Marie Conference
     Center, Holyoke, Massachusetts, USA. For
     brochure and application contact: Dannielle
     Kennedy, Ph.D. Associate Director for
     Administration, 54 Clairemont Road, Belmont,
     MA 02178, 617-489-4734


     April 3-7, The Tenth Biennial Conference on
     Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science
     organized by the Society for the Study of
     Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of
     Behaviour.  Halifax Hall of Residence &     
     Computer Science Department, University of
     Sheffield,  Sheffield, ENGLAND.  Contact:
     Conference programme chair, John Hallam,
     Department of Artificial Intelligence,
     University of Edinburgh, 5 Forrest Hill,
     Edinburgh EH1 2QL, SCOTLAND.  Phone: + 44 31
     650 3097, FAX: + 44 31 650 6899. E-mail:


     May 23-25, International Conference on
     Research and Practice in Attention Deficit
     Disorders, Jerusalem, Israel. Division of
     Special Education of The Hebrew University of
     Jerusalem, and B'Yahad, the Israeli national
     parent's education and support organization
     for families of children with Attention
     Deficit Disorders.  Scholarly papers are
     currently being solicited.  Tom Gumpel, Ph.D.,
     Chair, Scientific Committee, The Hebrew
     University of Jerusalem,


     June 21-24, Twelfth Annual International
     Conference in Literature-and-Psychology,
     University of Freiburg, Freiburg in Breisgau
     (Germany). Please send your title and a
     150-word abstract to Professor Andrew Gordon
     at IPSA (  For
     more information, contact Norman N. Holland


     July 10-13, "20th International Conference on
     Improving University Teaching".  Hong Kong.
     For instructions on submitting a paper or
     proposal and further information about the
     conference, e-mail  (

                  SECTION G: ANNOUNCEMENTS

| This section contains general announcements that |
| are relevant to the InterPsych Community.   Send |
| announcements to the IPN Mailbox:                |
| (                      |

1.   INTERPSYCH JOURNAL - Request for Input

InterPsych is in the process of negotiating with
two publishers regarding publication of an
electronically distributed, peer-reviewed journal.
Initial plans are to publish short empirical
articles in psychiatry, clinical psychology, and
experimental psychopathology.

We are currently gathering additional information
to include with the proposal that we are submitting
to the publishers. As part of this effort it would
be useful to hear from members of the academic
community about those aspects of electronically
distributed journals that would influence decisions
about submitting or subscribing to (or reading)
such a journal.

Relevant factors might include mode of access,
cost, level of scholarly review, stature of
editorial board, scope of content coverage,
circulation, speed of publication, etc.

We would be pleased if you would take a few moments
to send us your opinion on these matters. Please
direct comments to David L. DiLalla, Ph.D.


The International Research and Exchanges Board
(IREX) has just recently released information
concerning grant opportunities for United States
citizens and universities, at the graduate-level
and higher,  for the academic year 1995 - 1996.
Eligibility differs from program to program, but
all IREX grants are targeted to scholars of the
social sciences /humanities pursuing academic
interests in the Newly Independent States, Central
& Eastern Europe and the Baltics.

More comprehensive information on IREX funding can
be obtained from our gopher server:,
port 70. Users without gopher capability should
contact ( for more


The new Directory of Research Opportunities for
Clinical Psychology Interns, edited by Jack
Blanchard, is now available. One hundred and fifty
five programs are described. One of the most
important features of the new Directory is a
listing of the psychological interventions that are
taught and/or supervised at each site. The list is
derived from the Division 12 Task Force chaired by
Dianne Chambless. This is a gold mine of
information for prospective interns. Those wishing
to purchase the Directory may call Graywind at
518-438-3231.  Please let your students know about
this outstanding Directory! (U21B4@WVNVM.WVNET.EDU)


Dr. Haste is putting together a panel proposal on
the development of children's scientific
understanding for the BPS Annual Conference which
is April 1-4 in Warwick.  The deadline for the
proposal submission is October 31.  If anyone is
interested in joining in, please contact him with a
brief summary of your proposed paper.

5.   CARE IN PLACE: The International Journal of
     Networks and Community.

Care in Place offers an international forum for
reviews and reports of developments in human
services, legislation and theory. Care in Place
emphasizes cross-professional relationships and the
widest possible focus on all groups served by
community or neighborhood systems.  Send
manuscripts to: Professor Phil Barker (Editor)
Department of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle
Upon Tyne, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle Upon
Tyne NE1 4LP, ENGLAND Fax: 091 227 5108
   For subscription or single copies, either contact
   your usual supplier or:
   Routledge Subscriptions, ITPS Ltd., Cheriton House
   North Way, Andover SP10 5BE, United Kingdom
   Fax:+44(0)264 342807
     Rates: Institution: $90.00 (USA/Can)  Personal $46.00


David Fresco will be maintaining of list of
InterPsych members who will be attending the AABT
in San Diego, CA., USA.  Members interested in
meeting should contact him at


We are conducting a survey about the availability
of a course on the  PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER at the
undergraduate level in Psychology.  If your
University program offers a course on this topic,
could you please send us a short description of it
(curriculum); please specify if the course is
obligatory in your program. Please send your answer
to (

                   SECTION H: EMPLOYMENT

| This section is intended for listing current job |
| openings  in positions  relevant  to  InterPsych |
| members.  Send  job postings to the IPN Mailbox: |
| (                      |

  The Augusta Mental Health Institute has an
available position for a board certified
psychiatrist to join a staff of ten in treating the
most seriously ill in the State of Maine with
state-of-the-art care.  We offer the opportunity
for satisfying practice in a friendly collegial
environment.  Salary and benefits are highly
competitive.  South-central Maine offers a
comfortable and pleasant style of life.  Please
send your CV to William Anderson, M.D., Director of
Clinical Services, Augusta Mental Health Institute,
P.O. Box 724, Augusta ME 04332-0724 USA.

Facility Augusta Mental Health Institute is
currently taking assertive steps to re-focus on its
true mission and move toward a stronger emphasis on
community based treatment.  We are seeking an
individual with strong leadership/administrative
skills to guide the department of Social Work
Services in the crucial role it will play in AMHI's
future.  We need a candidate with an MAW and at
least 3 years of clinical background who has a
thorough understanding  of hospital/community
systems with an emphasis on creative discharge
planning.  Specific experience with individuals
suffering from major psychiatric disorders is
essential.  We offer a competitive salary and major
benefits package offered to State of Maine
employees.  If you are looking for a challenge with
the opportunity to truly make a difference, please
send your resume and letter of application to:
Nicole Morin-Scribner, Assistant Director of Human
Services, P.O. Box 724, Augusta ME 04332-0724 USA


applications for permanent, tenure-track positions
initial appointment is for
September, 1995. The current department of 24
offers an APA-accredited PsyD in clinical
psychology which follows a practitioner model of
training with a strong commitment to science-based
education. Approximately 10-15 graduate
students are accepted annually. The department also
houses the Center for Applied Psychology, a
clinical services facility, which provides
opportunities for clinical training and research.
On the undergraduate level, the department offers

1. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY (Associate/Full Professor,
depending on qualifications): Applicants should
have a doctorate from an APA-accredited
program; eligibility for Pennsylvania licensure is
desirable. Preference will be given to applicants
who can contribute to graduate teaching and
supervision in the area of psychological assessment
and/or clinical neuropsychology. Outstanding
applicants with expertise in other areas of
clinical psychology
including behavioral medicine and child/family
therapy will be considered.

2. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (Assistant Professor):
Applicants should have a doctorate in developmental
psychology; preference will be given to applicants
with a specialization in child psychology. Teaching
responsibilities will include undergraduate courses
in child and adolescent psychology; other course
assignments will depend on the applicant's
expertise and interests.  FOR BOTH POSITIONS, a
commitment to excellence in both undergraduate and
graduate education and research is essential.
Individual initiatives in any form of scholarly
activity, including grant writing, are encouraged.
IUP is the largest university in Pennsylvania's
State System of Higher Education and is located
approximately 50 miles northeast of Pittsburgh.
Applications should be received by Feb. 15, 1995
for full consideration; review of applications will
continue until the positions are filled. Letters of
application, vitae, transcripts, three letters of
reference (one of which must be from your current
employer/supervisor), and supporting materials
should be sent to: Dr. Mary Lou Zanich, Chair -
Clinical Search Committee or Developmental Search
Committee, 316-P Clark Hall, Department of
Psychology, IUP, Indiana, PA  15705-1068.  Women
and minorities are especially encouraged to apply.
IUP is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity