________________________________________________________________ VOLUME 2, ISSUE 1 THE INTERPSYCH NEWSLETTER AUG-OCT, 1994 ________________________________________________________________ TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 0: INDEX Section A: EDITORIAL The sky is falling or the ground is rising: Perspectives on changes in the Internet Sean P. Sullivan, Editor-in-Chief Section B: INTRODUCTION 1. Introduction to IPN 2. IPN Charter Section C: INTERPSYCH AND SIG UPDATE 1. InterPsych Update 2. SIG Update: Clinical-psychology Depression Helplessness Psychopharmacology Psychiatry Traumatic Stress 3. SIG list Section D: ARTICLE U.S. Health Care Reform and the Therapeutic State, Jeffrey A. Schaler, Ph.D. Section E: RESOURCE UPDATE 1. Scientific articles on ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS - PARAPSYCHOLOGY - HYPNOSIS - TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY - HUMAN POTENTIAL - MEDITATION 2. HEALTH INFOCOM NEWSLETTER Section F: CALENDAR Section G: ANNOUNCEMENTS Section H: EMPLOYMENT ____________________________________________________________ INTERPSYCH NEWSLETTER STAFF ____________________________________________________________ Editor-in-Chief: Sean P. Sullivan Managing Editors: Sunkyo Kwon Joseph Plaud Assistant Editors: Lori Beth Bisbey Stephanie A. Dobler Fred Cutter John M. Grohol Gina Jozaitis Burt Knight Jeffry Luria Nancy Tice The InterPsych Newsletter, ISSN 1355-2562, is an electronic publication of InterPsych. The newsletter is distributed on a monthly basis free of charge to all members of InterPsych. InterPsych does not hold itself responsible for statements made in the InterPsych Newsletter by contributors. Unless stated otherwise, the material in the InterPsych Newsletter does not reflect the endorsement, attitude, or position of the Board of Directors of InterPsych or the editors of the InterPsych Newsletter. InterPsych is a non-profit, voluntary organization, established on Mailbase with the aim of promoting inter- national scholarly collaboration on inter-disciplinary research efforts in the field of mental health. To enquire about the InterPsych Newsletter, please send a message to Sean P. Sullivan (email@example.com). ____________________________________________________________ THE INTERPSYCH NEWSLETTER AUG-OCT, 1994 ____________________________________________________________ SECTION A: EDITORIAL THE SKY IS FALLING OR THE GROUND IS RISING - PERSPECTIVES ON CHANGES IN THE INTERNET - Over 20 years ago what is today the Internet was born out of a U.S. Defense Department network called ARPAnet. Deemed to be unsuitable for defense purposes due to concerns over security breaches, the network was turned over to the private sector. Since this time, it has blossomed into a worldwide aggregation of information and people that has redefined the way information is used and disseminated. Already electronic communication has changed and shaped the world. During the soviet coup in 1991, coup leaders were un- able to restrict access to information after seizing control of media outlets as soviet citizens used e-mail and fax machines to communicate with the outside world. While the Internet's impact has already been enormous, great changes in its accessibility and makeup are occurring that will reshape the role of the Internet in our lives. Concurrently, we must begin the process of redefining not just what the Internet is, but what it can be. To date, the Internet has been marked, and in fact defined, by an overall lack of planning and organization that has made finding information difficult to impossible. The amount of information currently available on the Internet is stunning - from complete transcripts of all Monty Python episodes to images taken from weather satellites within the last hour. Although no one disputes the wealth of information available, problems have existed finding and accessing this information. In the past, information was often found by word of mouth, by reading extensive lists, or by simply stumbling upon it. More recently, software has been developed allowing Internet applications to be run on the desktop as opposed to mainframe terminals. One such application is NCSA's Mosaic, a World- Wide Web client which permits hypertext searches. One of the reasons Mosaic has been so immensely popular is the relative ease with which one can navigate through the net. With the advent of this and similar software, information is both ex- panding and becoming more accessible. Consider that current- ly, in part due to the lack of user-friendly interfaces, most people's Internet literacy is limited to electronic mail. As navigation of the Internet becomes more straightforward for the lay person, the way we communicate and share information and the Internet itself will be radically altered. In addition to changes in the ease of accessing information, the makeup of the people on-line is also changing. Previous- ly, the Internet was dominated by experienced net-surfers and new users, or "newbies", were treated as such and initiated into the ways of the net. Daily more locations gain access to the net and computer prices drop, and the number of users grows almost exponentially. Imagine taking a city of 2 million people and adding 10 million! While it is clear this will irrevocably change the Internet, it also presents tremendous opportunities. As the Internet changes from being a novelty to being an important part of everyday communication, we must strive to create new and innovative uses for the Internet. Suddenly communication is not limited by distance or time. Instead of the latest clinical information being discussed in letters and brief reports in journals, people have access to electronic mail groups, such as the many that have been organized on InterPsych, and can confer with colleagues around the globe instantly. Imagine how the Internet can change the everyday life of someone with mental illness. Whereas previously someone living with manic depression in an isolated, rural area would have an impossible time finding a support network outside of friends and family, now that net- work is available on his or her desktop. The effect that this type of cultural cross-fertilization will have on disciplines such as mental health and the world in general is inconceivable. As a new generation of users is introduced, our goal should be to promote the utilization of the Internet in ways never even imagined. The Internet was designed to be a system that has nothing to do with the way that it is currently used. For this reason, it often appears disjointed and chaotic (in fact, it is). Sadly, it is one of both the banes and the beauties that so little organization and regulation exists. As the Internet grows, so its unbridled manner will shrink. Currently, there is a strong resistance in the Internet community to change. On the threshold of a new era in usage, we must be pragmatic about planning for the future and encourage the growth of the Internet. In addition to changes accessibility, we face a time when NSF will start charging for access to backbone, accounts will need to be licensed to ensure accountability, and restrictions will be imposed on what information can be transmitted. For better or worse, these changes are inevitable, and to ensure that they are for the better, we must decide not only to embrace them but to shape them as well. If we plan for the future, we will find the future is now. [SPS] SECTION B: INTRODUCTION TO IPN ________________________________________________________________ DON'T KILL ME - I'M USEFUL! The InterPsych (IP) enterprise is an astounding phenomenon: Few if any lists on the information superhighway have been able to accomplish so much in terms of recruiting members, productivity in discussions, and proliferation of information in the field of mental health within such a short time frame. The InterPsych Newsletter (IPN) has evolved out of the IP and - after a pregnant-productive pause - presents itself to the IP- based and larger "virtual audience" now with a new staff, format, and mission. This section is devoted to explain you the crux of its objectives. With the advent of IP, you might notice more people - previously not connected to such a powerful medium - proudly remark that they've returned to 20-500 messages in their mailbox after a short absence. While this has been a fad for quite some time in other fields, the IP has been a key player in awarding many more mental health professionals this credential of social and academic reputability. Informational overflow presses each one of us to make rapid decisions on which messages to acknowledge, which ones to peruse, which ones to ignore. Most messages that are killed are boring, unrelated to one's own activities, annoying or deleted simply for lack of time to read (or think). Like mainstream social sciences are committed to convey complex information in a few aggregate numbers, information explosions on "the net" have led to lists, exclusively devoted to reporting developments on the internet as a whole or zooming in on specific facets, like ascend groups, the world-wide web or gophers. There are also possibilities to monitor the emergence of new lists and to request automatically compiled summaries of a day's communication on a given discussion forum. The newly established InterPsych Newsletter devotes itself to reduce some of this complexity, while providing readers with additional insights from more analytical perspectives and a landscape view of the world of electronically delivered information as it relates to research and practice of mental health. As we believe that compiling lists of topics and resources will be too simplistic and pasting substantial information on mental health - real or virtual - too long, we have opted for a healthy mixture of digests, news, information and original contributions. The Charter of the InterPsych Newsletter follows. As the IPN is chiefly delivered in e-mailable format and produced by voluntary efforts, restrictions had to be made with regard to length of contributions. However, the IPN strives for highest quality and the same depth as comparable hardcopy parallels, while adding to bandwidth, precisely because it relies on electronically based resources and a highly committed, enthusiastic staff. It is the IPN's endeavor to provide you with time-saving summaries, up-to- date information and metaperspectives on voices from the net. Still, readers of the IPN may be initially appalled by overall size, but do keep in mind that it spares you from going through several thousands of lines instead and multiple messages. In the interest of making reading easier we have sent sections as separate files so that readers may access sections they want to read or delete those they do not want more quickly. Also, we suggest printing IPN for easier reading. So do bear in mind for forthcoming IPN issues: Don't reach out for the delete-key too quickly - I'm useful. [SK] ________________________________________________________________ *InterPsych Newsletter Charter* The mission of the InterPsych Newsletter is to facilitate the formation of an international, multidisciplinary community committed to advancing research, theory, and practice in the field of mental health. It is our aim to inform and to promote discussion among professionals in all mental-health-related fields in the belief that the electronic-network-based delivery of information and cooperation of sundry disciplines will contribute to advancements in the field. To this end, the newsletter aims to promote: 1) involvement in Interpsych and its continuing development, 2) dissemination of health-care information world-wide, 3) international discussion and collaboration, 4) utilization of current resources on the internet, 5) creation of new and innovative uses of the internet, 6) theoretical and empirical research. SECTION C: INTERPSYCH AND SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP UPDATE ------------------------------------------------------------ | This section serves to foster awareness among InterPsych's | | members of discussions in different SIGs and to encourage | | people to become active in InterPsych. This section | | contains two general article types: a) Short articles | | discussing current developments at Interpsych and | | b) summaries of recent discussions in the SIGs. | | If you are interested in writing a summary for a group | | that you belong to, please contact Sean Sullivan: | | (firstname.lastname@example.org). | | To comment on an article in this section, send a message to| | the IPN Mailbox (email@example.com). | ------------------------------------------------------------- C-1 INTERPSYCH UPDATE The Mailbase host that served as the initiating agency for the psychiatry SIG that eventually spawned InterPsych and its SIGs decided to withdraw its support as the host for InterPsych (IP). The rationale for this decision is that the number of British subscribers to the IP lists is relatively low when compared with American subscribers. Specifically, Cristyn Emmett (Cristyn.Emmett@newcastle.ac.uk) of Mailbase said that the total number of IP members is 6144. The number of non-UK members is 5825. These numbers were put forward in support of the decision by Mailbase to withdraw its support from IP. Although many individuals, such as the President of IP, Dr. Martin Seligman, and the founder of IP, Mr. Ian Pitchford, as well as multidisciplinary professionals voiced sound arguments for the appropriateness of Mailbase to continue its support for IP, the Mailbase administrators decided to give IP until December 31, 1994 to find a new host. Since that period several ideas have been circulated about a new home for IP, including employing listservs at different institutions. The American Psychological Association also expressed interest in hosting InterPsych, and Dr. Joseph J. Plaud, list-owner of the clinical-psychology SIG, explored the possibility of the University of North Dakota hosting IP. At this point, the consensus appears to be to proceed slowly and cautiously before making decisions on the fate of InterPsych. One thing appears certain, though: InterPsych will continue to grow and foster an active exchange of ideas and opinions. Finding a permanent location for hosting InterPsych's functions seems to be a matter of identifying the most logical next step, and proceeding full steam. [JJP] ______________________________________________________________ C-2 SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP (SIG) UPDATE: Below are summaries by list-owners for some of the SIGs that InterPsych sponsors. CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY: There have been a number of recent topics on the Clinical Psychology list which have greatly piqued the interest of the list's members. In the past two weeks, the topics that have dominated the list's discussion have surrounded the ongoing political controversy of the American Psychological Association's elections - carried on between Lew Lipsitt and Kurt Salzinger, the covariance between genes and the environment in disorders such as obesity and hypertension, and the largest topic of debate, the effects of a proposal to "immunize" pre- teenagers against depression with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAT) techniques. This last subject is perhaps the most intriguing. Martin Seligman began the debate with his suggestion that preteens, aged 10-12 YO, who are at risk of depression be taught some cognitive behavioral therapy (CAT) techniques that might help reduce the incidence of depression. This is not a new idea, which has been suggested by various studies conducted on this so-called "immunization effect". However, Seligman's proposal on is new and was criticized by others on the list, especially and most thoroughly by Jeffrey Schaler. In a detailed rejoinder to Seligman's initial and follow-up article, Schaler examined some of the wide-ranging implications of Seligman's seemingly-innocuous proposal. Tor Neilands and David Fresco also contributed to the thoughtful and thought-provoking debate, which touches upon the need of preventive medicine, research, law, ethics, and morality. The merits of clinical vs. counseling psychology were also debated. Many clinical psychologists felt that counselors are often not properly trained in a scientist- practitioner model, and gave examples to support their positions. Counselors and social workers responded by saying that broad generalizations shouldn't be made, and some even said they were better qualified to conduct psychotherapy. No consensus was reached. The positions of Chomsky and others were put forth as a way of debating the position of Skinner and his alleged theoretical shortcomings (particularly as applied to understanding verbal behavior). The strengths of a Skinnerian argument were persuasive. [JMG, JJP] DEPRESSION: After some interesting discussion on the evolutionary adaptiveness of depressotypic behavior, the Depression SIG has simmered down of late. Members are invited to share recent research or thoughts regarding mood disorders, including but not limited to: neurobiological and psychological vulnerability; personality and depression; consequences of depression; description of depression; and co-morbidity with other disorders. [Contributor: Dr. Thomas Joiner] HELPLESSNESS: We're hovering at about 400 members. Dr. Seligman and I are stepping up our efforts to get us through a discussion dry spell. Some pretty big names in the field of helplessness have joined or have expressed interest in joining. We will soon begin two new types of discussion: 1) Discussion of in progress work related to helpless- ness and 2) Theoretical target articles and responses - but not as formal as an E-journal. Also under consideration, but probably too preliminary to hype are a Helplessness gopher site and WWW Page. [Contributor: Dr. David Fresco] PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY: The psychopharmacology list has been averaging about 10 messages a day. We now have about 400 members from 16 countries. Recent discussions have been on such topics as: with- drawal syndromes following the discontinuation of anti- depressants; the combined use of psychotherapy and psychopharmacology; psychotherapeutic agents mentioned in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, the use of narcotics for the treatment of people with depressions; the combined use of antipsychotics and Psychostimulants; the use of once a month fluoxetine (Prozac) for the treatment of women with severe PMS. [Contributor: Dr. Ivan Goldberg] PSYCHIATRY: The Psychiatry mailing list is the special interest group (SIG) that most people join when they first learn about InterPsych. It is the most general and the least specialized of the InterPsych SIGs. The communications of the Psychiatry group have ranged from general information-seeking to on-line debates on a wide variety of topics, with a stimulating, refreshing, and sometimes startling mixture of perspectives offered by clinicians, patients, students, researchers, educators, and many others. Many people actively participate in group discussions, others choose to simply observe; some use the group to gather information, others use it to develop collaborative networks; some find the discussions in the psychiatry group too wide-ranging and opt for one or more narrower focused InterPsych SIGs; others find it just to their liking. In my opinion, the Psychiatry SIG has played - and will likely continue to play - two very key roles in the rapid growth of InterPsych. First, it has been an "on-ramp to the information highway" for many people who are learning for the first time about Internet applications in psychiatry and psychology; second, many of the ideas, interests, and even some dissatisfactions voiced in the Psychiatry SIG have propelled the development of other SIGs. These two roles serve to recruit and educate new members, and also to stimulate further differentiation and development of InterPsych. [Contributor: Dr. Charles Stinson] TRAUMATIC STRESS: Our membership is now approaching 600. The number of messages per day varies from 1-10. Most recent topics of discussion have included research and treatment issues associated with false memory syndrome, EMDR, and the rescue and emotional recovery of those affected by the Estonia ship disaster that resulted in the death of 900 Swedes, Estonians, and others. The tone on the network is always constructive, friendly, respectful, and encouraging. We are especially pleased to have members from countries outside North America and Europe. There are a number of study groups led by senior scholars and clinicians working with more junior members from places with few resources for developing skills and knowledge in the area of traumatology. New members are welcome. [Contributor: Dr. Charles Figley] C-3 SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP LIST ---------------------------------------------------------- | The following is a list of current InterPsych Special | | Interest Groups (SIGs). In this issue, we are listing | | all of the SIGs. In subsequent issues, we will only list | | new SIGs that have been formed. The name of each group | | precedes a short description of the group. | | To join any of these lists, send a message to | | MAILBASE@MAILBASE.AC.UK with the body: join NAME.OF | | GROUP YOUR.FIRST.NAME YOUR.LAST.NAME. | | To leave any list send | | a message to MAILBASE@MAILBASE.AC.UK with the body: leave | | NAME.OF.GROUP. | ----------------------------------------------------------- 1. ATTACHMENT ----------- This list welcomes discussion on Bowlby-Ainsworth's theory of attachment. From theoretical and philosophical issues, to clinical or applied issues. Particular emphasis is given to socio-affective and defensive processes, and unconscious representations. 2. CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY ------------------- This list promotes the exchange of ideas on matters relevant to clinical psychology, and particularly to the practice of clinical psychology. 3. CLINICAL-PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY ------------------------- A forum for the discussion of issues related to the field of Applied Psychophysiology, Medical Psychology and Biofeedback. The list's primary purpose is to allow professionals - psychiatrists, nurses, psychologists, social workers, other medical personnel to share ideas about clinical matters. 4. CHILD-PSYCHIATRY ---------------- The Child Psychiatry list is devoted to the discussion of various issues around Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. This includes treatment issues, psychopharmacology, inpatient/outpatient care plans, emergency child/adolescent psychiatry etcetera. 5. DEPRESSION ---------- This forum exists for scholarly discussion of issues related to mood disorders in clinical and research settings. Integrative biological- psychological contributions are particularly welcome. Topics include causation, correlates, consequences, co-morbidity, treatment/prevention, etc. 6. EMERGENCY-PSYCHIATRY -------------------- We encourage the broad discussion of all topics - medical, psychotherapeutic,social,legal - that relate to the practice of Emergency Psychiatry. We invite mental health professionals, students, and users to contribute their research, clinical wisdom, questions, and personal experiences. 7. FORENSIC-PSYCHIATRY ------------------- To serve as a forum for the scholarly and collegial discussion of issues in forensic psychiatry. 8. HELPLESSNESS ------------ Learned Helplessness and Explanatory Style was created to discuss the latest research on animals and humans, biological substratum, depression, anxiety, prevention, CAVE, politics, children, personal control, health, battering, bereavement, PTSD, sex differences, pessimism, work, heritability. 9. INTERPSYCH-ADMIN [CLOSED] -------------------------- A closed forum for debate amongst those responsible for the administration of InterPsych, including trustees, members of the board of directors and advisory board, journal and newsletter editors and associate editors, regional representatives, committee members, and other staff and volunteers. If you want to help develop InterPsych send a note to: InterPsychfirstname.lastname@example.org outlining your experience. 10. MANAGED-BEHAVIOURAL-HEALTHCARE ------------------------------ All contributions relevant to Managed Behavioural HealthCare are welcomed. A particular emphasis is the development of multidisciplinary outpatient-based treatment provider groups. Discussion topics include: best clinical practices, outcomes research, insurance, case management, and informatics. 11. PSY-ART ------- This list deals with the psychological study of the arts, especially literature and film. Most of us apply psychoanalysis, but some of us use cognitive science, experimental psychology, or reader- response studies. We welcome comments from any psychological orientation. 12. PSYCH-CURRENT-ISSUES -------------------- This list is for discussion of current issues in Psychiatry, Clinical Psychology and related fields. Topics might include Provision of Mental Health Services; Ethical Issues; Professional Development/ Training; Public Image of Psychiatry and Psychology; and The future of Mental Health Services. 13. PSYCHIATRY ---------- Many research findings and viewpoints in psychiatry are controversial,leaving a gulf between those pursuing radically different approaches to mental illness. This forum will act as a bridge between those taking a biomedical approach and those taking a psychodynamic approach. 14. PSYCHIATRY-ASSESSMENT --------------------- This sublist focuses on research and clinical issues related to use of psychological tests (including traditional clinical instruments & normal personality measures) in psychiatry and clinical psychology. 15. PSYCHIATRY-RESOURCES -------------------- This list is intended for those who wish to co-operate in the compilation of a resource guide to enable clinicians and academics in the areas of psychiatry and abnormal psychology to gain maximum benefit from the facilities available over the Internet. 16. PSYCHOANALYSIS -------------- This list is designed to promote dialogue about psychoanalysis in all its aspects including clinical practice, psychoanalytic theory, education, organizational issues, relations with other disciplines, and applications to the humanities, social sciences and public policy. 17. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY ------------------ The purpose of the Psychopharmacology mailing list is to provide a forum for the professional discussion of all aspects of clinical psychopharmacology. Clinical psychopharmacology is broadly defined as the treatment individuals with psychiatric disorders through the use of psychotropic medications. All mental health professionals, and graduate students may subscribe to the Psychopharmacology Mailing List. 18. PSY-LANGUAGE ------------ For discussions related to language and psychopathology. Discussions could include: theories of language and their relevance for the study of psychopathological speech, new research and publications in the area, requests for help with one's own research. 19. TRANSCULTURAL-PSYCHOLOGY ------------------------ Discussion of the delivery of mental health services to diverse cultures. Topics may include, cultural differences in views on mental disorders, culture-specific syndromes, collaboration between Western and traditional healers, and cultural variance in symptoms. 20. TRAUMATIC-STRESS ---------------- This list promotes the investigation, assessment, and treatment of the immediate and long-term psychosocial, biophysiological, and existential consequences of highly stressful (traumatic) events. Of special interest are efforts to identify a cure of PTSD (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder) SECTION D: ARTICLE ---------------------------------------------------- | In this section is an non-reviewed article | | submitted by Dr. Schaler. In the future, this | | section will be devoted to refereed research | | articles. To submit an article to this section, | | please send an ASCII version of the manuscript | | to the IPN Mailbox (email@example.com). | --------------------------------------------------- U.S. HEALTH CARE REFORM AND THE THERAPEUTIC STATE Jeffrey A. Schaler "What has allowed us to get to the point where mental illness and substance abuse services are viewed as essential components of a comprehensive medical bene- fit package," explains Tipper Gore, holder of a master's degree in psychology and wife of Vice Pres. Gore, is that as a country, "we have come to recognize that mental and addictive disorders are real medical disorders just like other physical illnesses; they are diagnosable and treatable," (1). Ms. Gore says that 23 percent of people between the ages of 15 and 54, and 16 percent of Americans ages 65 and older, suffer from "depression." Five percent of all children under the age of 8 have "severe emotional disturbances" and at least 10 percent of children in the U.S. manifest a specific "learning disability." Alcohol use disorders allegedly affect approximately 23 % of the population, and drug use disorders affect about 12 %. On the basis of these statistics, it would appear that 89 percent of the American population suffers from mental and addictive disorders. In other words, almost everyone is sick. I think we need to take another look at the difference between mental [fake] and physical [real] illness. For the policies that we implement based on explanations for behaviors and ill- ness can vary significantly. "Ideas," wrote Richard Weaver, "have consequences," (2). Ms. Gore endorses the "medical model" of behavior. She advances the idea that biological factors determine "mental disorders." There two other explanatory models used by social scientists - and the public is generally unaware of that. Psychological models focus on self-environment interaction. Those may include free-will oriented, existential perspectives on human behavior, as well as deterministic approaches such as psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Those may also include volitional- learning approaches such as social-cognitive theory. Sociocultural models explain abnormal behaviors through norms and mores. Those proponents may question the existence of mental disorders, i.e., that they are social inventions, not scientific discoveries. For example, they view homelessness as a socioeconomic problem. Ms. Gore sees it as untreated mental illness. What we may do [or won't do] about homelessness varies by the explanation that we give for it. It's important for the public to realize that psychology and psychiatry are not "hard" sciences like chemistry or engineering. Behavior is choice, the function of moral agency. Thus, the state should con- sider the view that mental disorders are unlike physical illnesses, before it gets too involved in the "diagnosis" and "treatment" field. There are good arguments against the idea that mental illness and addictive disorders even exist. Certainly, the medical model dominates public policy. However, by scrutinizing mental and physical illness we may con- clude that the two are quite different. Policy makers should take these points in consideration. For example, mental and addictive disorders are "diagnosed" and "treated" based on symptoms, or sub- jective complaints. Medical disorders are usually diagnosed and treated based on signs, or objective tests. In mental and addictive disorders, people are designated "patients" against their consent. In medical disorders, treatment without consent occurs only in cases of unconsciousness, for children, and contagious disease. Real diseases occur in the body, usually involve lesions, and are present at death. That's not true for mental and addictive disorders. There are no definitive lesions for any of the mental and addictive disorders. Mental and addictive dis- orders are diagnosed by something that a person does and feels, e.g., acting in a peculiar fashion, complaining of hopelessness. Real diseases are some- thing that a person has, e.g., a person has cancer, diabetes, or heart disease. Mental and addictive disorders are behaviors and thus a function of personal values. Real diseases have little to do with morality. Clearly certain behaviors may lead to disease: Smoking is a behavior that may lead to cancer. Heavy drinking is a behavior that may lead to liver disease. No matter how "good" or "bad" people are, they're equally susceptible to con- tracting a disease, e.g., AIDS. Furthermore, people can change behaviors through desire, but they cannot change their disease by desiring to be well. People labeled with addictive disorder are often "treated" with spiritual-conversion experience, e.g., "turning one's life over to a higher power" as in Alcoholics Anonymous. That's not so for physical diseases. More- over, drug addicts get "better" when they give up heroin and cocaine. Diabetics get worse when they give up insulin (3). Finally, real diseases are listed in standard textbooks on pathology. Mental and addictive disorders are not. Most behaviors referred to as mental and addictive disorders are categorized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association as not having an organic base: "The diagnosis is made only when it cannot be establi- shed that an organic factor initiated and maintained the disturbance," here referring to "schizophrenia," (4). As Thomas Szasz explains, the medicalization of socially deviant behavior is moralism masquerading as medicine, (5). The government has no place telling people how to behave, when their behavior harms no one but themselves. I submit that the government has no place telling people how they should regard them- selves, e.g., dictating self concept. When government gets involved in "treating" mental disorders that's exactly what it ends up doing - dictating an "appropriate" way for people to think about themselves and the world. As constitutional scholar Lawrence Tribe wrote: "Not surprisingly the [Supreme] Court has insisted that activities actually going on within the head are absolutely beyond the power of government to control. In a society whose whole constitutional heritage rebels at the thought of giving the govern- ment the power to control men's minds, the governing institutions, and especially the courts, must not only reject direct attempts to exercise forbidden domination over mental processes; they must strictly examine as well oblique intrusions likely to produce, or designed to produce, the same result," (6) That church-state entanglement through health-care reform may bring unanticipated conflict regarding First Amendment rights violations is one reason why coverage for mental and addictive disorders is inappropriate. The fact that mental and addictive dis- orders are quite different from "real" diseases is another. The economic drain on coverage for legitimate diseases that people cannot control because of "mental-health coverage" is perhaps the most important, (7). While Ms. Gore, as Mental Health Ad- visor to Pres. Clinton, asserts that people with "mental illness" and "drug addictions are just like those with cancer, diabetes, AIDS, and heart disease, a person with diabetes is hardly like a heroin addict. Those struggling with cancer are hardly like people labeled "manic-depressive." Psychiatry and psycho- therapy should remain personal, contractual engage- ments and belong in the private sector, free of any and all state intrusion and involvement. Notes 1. Gore, T. (1994). Moving policy toward medical reality: Mental and addictive disorders and the Health Security Act. Treatment Today, Vol. 6., No. 1, 6-9. 2. Weaver, R. (1962). Ideas have consequences. Chicago: Phoenix Books. 3. The idea was suggested to me by Nelson Bolero, MD, in 1989. 4. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). DST-III-R. Washington, D.C.; American Psychiatric Association, p. 187. 5. Szasz, T. (1994). Cruel compassion: Psychiatric control of society Us unwanted. New York: Wiley. 6. Tribe, L. (1988). Constitutional law, 2nd Ed., p. 1315. 7. Hilzenrath, D.S. (1994). The quandary over Mental health care costs. The Washington Post, July 25, A6. SECTION E: RESOURCE UPDATE -------------------------------------------------- | This section is intended for articles describing | | new resources to encourage the use of resources | | currently available on the net. | -------------------------------------------------- E-1 Scientific articles available via anonymous FTP on ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS - PARAPSYCHOLOGY - HYPNOSIS - TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY - HUMAN POTENTIAL - MEDITATION As an aid to education and communication, Charles T. Tart, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the Davis campus of the University of California, internationally known for pioneering scientific work in the above and related areas, is gradually making reprints of his published journal articles and miscellaneous papers available, via anonymous ftp, to whoever is interested. These are mostly from scientific journals, but are generally quite readable to the educated layman. Computer users with access to the Internet can access the archive as follows: Connect to ftp server, "ftp.ucdavis.edu". Log in as username "anonymous". Send your e-mail address as the ident/password string. cd to /pub/fztart. A "dir" command will show you what is available. A "get" command will retrieve documents. The file "current-contents" will be updated regularly, showing what papers are available, often with an abstract of each. For more information, contact Jonathan Steven Hurwitz, firstname.lastname@example.org E-2 HEALTH INFOCOM NEWSLETTER The Health InfoCom Newsletter, issues HICN751 and HICN752 are now available for pickup. The table of contents are listed below. For more information contact David Dodell, Editor, HICNet Medical Newsletter (email@example.com) The Health Infocom Newsletter can be requested in one of three ways: FTP: vm1.nodak.edu /HICNEWS as HICNxxx.NWS MOSAIC: Asia/Pacific: http: //biomed.nus.sg/MEDNEWS/welcome.html Americas: http: //cancer.med.upenn.edu:3000/ E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org: The first line of text much be: get /waffle/files/mednews/hicnxxx.nws __________________________________________________ HICNet Medical News Digest Sun, 16 Oct 1994 Volume 07 : Issue 51 Today's Topics: [MMWR 11 Oct 94] Vaccination Coverage of 2-year Old Children [MMWR] Missed Opportunities to Vaccinate Pre-School Children [MMWR] Childhood Vaccine-Preventable Diseases [MMWR] Certification of Poliomyelitis Erradication [MMWR] Update: Human Plague - India, 1994 Scientists Net Major Shrimp Allergen Low-Cal Diets: Can they prolong life? ___________________________________________________ HICNet Medical News Digest Sun, 16 Oct 1994 Volume 07 : Issue 52 Today's Topics: Internet Availability of PEEM Guidelines forecasting Vector-Borne Disease. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology - Fall 1994 Courses. AIDS Daily News Summaries. SECTION F: CALENDAR -------------------------------------------------------------- | For free listing of your conference or event, please send us| | the following information: dates of event, title, sponsor,| | location, continuing education credits (if applicable),| | and the name, e-mail address, physical address, and phone| | number of a contact person. All notices should be sent by| | the first Friday of the month to the IPN Mailbox: | | (email@example.com). | -------------------------------------------------------------- *OCTOBER* October 29, Annual conference of the New York Center for Psychoanalytic Studies. Fordham University. The subject this year is the narcissistic and the difficult patient in Psychoanalysis. (firstname.lastname@example.org) *NOVEMBER* November 4-6, Current Topics In the Law and Mental Health. The Westin Hotel, Seattle, Washington, USA. Sponsored by Missoula Psychiatric Services. For Registration and Information, contact: Professionally Planned Ltd, Post Office Box 5626, Missoula, Montana 59806, 406-542-7526 November 11-13, Objectivity and Truth in the Natural Sciences, the Social Sciences and the Humanities. Boston Marriott, Cambridge, USA. For information call (609) 683-7878, or e-mail: (email@example.com) November 12-13, The 7th Symposium on Creativity, Psychopathology and Adaptation. Theme: Women and Creativity. The Department of Psychiatry of the Montreal General Hospital. Contact Cathy Tsagaroulis, Room 675, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, P.Q. H3G 1A4. Please include name, address, telephone number and practice/ affiliation. November 18-20, European Trauma Conference: Trauma Treatment in the 90's: Towards the 21st Century. Presented by the UK and Finland Members of the International Association of Trauma Counsellors. The Birch Hotel, Haywards Heath, Sussex, United Kingdom. Conference is endorsed by Saybrook Institute. Contact: Lori Beth Bisbey (firstname.lastname@example.org), phone:44-342-323107. Fax:44-342-324316. November 27-December 9, SOFSEM'94: XXI-st International Winter School on theoretical and practical aspects of computer science. Milovy, Czech Republic. Organized by Czech and Slovak Societies for Computer Science and Czech ACM Chapter SOFSEM (SOFtware SEMinar). Contact: (email@example.com) *JANUARY* January 18-22, Authority, Leadership and Organizational Life, A Residential Conference sponsored by The Center for the Study of Groups and Social Systems, Boston Center of the A.K. Rice Institute, Mont Marie Conference Center, Holyoke, Massachusetts, USA. For brochure and application contact: Dannielle Kennedy, Ph.D. Associate Director for Administration, 54 Clairemont Road, Belmont, MA 02178, 617-489-4734 *APRIL* April 3-7, The Tenth Biennial Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science organized by the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour. Halifax Hall of Residence & Computer Science Department, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, ENGLAND. Contact: Conference programme chair, John Hallam, Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Edinburgh, 5 Forrest Hill, Edinburgh EH1 2QL, SCOTLAND. Phone: + 44 31 650 3097, FAX: + 44 31 650 6899. E-mail: (firstname.lastname@example.org) *MAY* May 23-25, International Conference on Research and Practice in Attention Deficit Disorders, Jerusalem, Israel. Division of Special Education of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and B'Yahad, the Israeli national parent's education and support organization for families of children with Attention Deficit Disorders. Scholarly papers are currently being solicited. Tom Gumpel, Ph.D., Chair, Scientific Committee, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, (TGUMPEL@vms.huji.ac.il) *JUNE* June 21-24, Twelfth Annual International Conference in Literature-and-Psychology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg in Breisgau (Germany). Please send your title and a 150-word abstract to Professor Andrew Gordon at IPSA (email@example.com). For more information, contact Norman N. Holland (firstname.lastname@example.org) *JULY* July 10-13, "20th International Conference on Improving University Teaching". Hong Kong. For instructions on submitting a paper or proposal and further information about the conference, e-mail (email@example.com) SECTION G: ANNOUNCEMENTS -------------------------------------------------- | This section contains general announcements that | | are relevant to the InterPsych Community. Send | | announcements to the IPN Mailbox: | | (firstname.lastname@example.org). | -------------------------------------------------- 1. INTERPSYCH JOURNAL - Request for Input InterPsych is in the process of negotiating with two publishers regarding publication of an electronically distributed, peer-reviewed journal. Initial plans are to publish short empirical articles in psychiatry, clinical psychology, and experimental psychopathology. We are currently gathering additional information to include with the proposal that we are submitting to the publishers. As part of this effort it would be useful to hear from members of the academic community about those aspects of electronically distributed journals that would influence decisions about submitting or subscribing to (or reading) such a journal. Relevant factors might include mode of access, cost, level of scholarly review, stature of editorial board, scope of content coverage, circulation, speed of publication, etc. We would be pleased if you would take a few moments to send us your opinion on these matters. Please direct comments to David L. DiLalla, Ph.D. (GA3977@SIUCVMB.SIU.EDU) 2. GRANTS The International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX) has just recently released information concerning grant opportunities for United States citizens and universities, at the graduate-level and higher, for the academic year 1995 - 1996. Eligibility differs from program to program, but all IREX grants are targeted to scholars of the social sciences /humanities pursuing academic interests in the Newly Independent States, Central & Eastern Europe and the Baltics. More comprehensive information on IREX funding can be obtained from our gopher server: info.irex.org, port 70. Users without gopher capability should contact (email@example.com) for more information. 3. DIRECTORY OF RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES FOR CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY INTERNS AVAILABLE The new Directory of Research Opportunities for Clinical Psychology Interns, edited by Jack Blanchard, is now available. One hundred and fifty five programs are described. One of the most important features of the new Directory is a listing of the psychological interventions that are taught and/or supervised at each site. The list is derived from the Division 12 Task Force chaired by Dianne Chambless. This is a gold mine of information for prospective interns. Those wishing to purchase the Directory may call Graywind at 518-438-3231. Please let your students know about this outstanding Directory! (U21B4@WVNVM.WVNET.EDU) 4. PANEL ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING Dr. Haste is putting together a panel proposal on the development of children's scientific understanding for the BPS Annual Conference which is April 1-4 in Warwick. The deadline for the proposal submission is October 31. If anyone is interested in joining in, please contact him with a brief summary of your proposed paper. (H.E.Haste@bath.ac.uk) 5. CARE IN PLACE: The International Journal of Networks and Community. Care in Place offers an international forum for reviews and reports of developments in human services, legislation and theory. Care in Place emphasizes cross-professional relationships and the widest possible focus on all groups served by community or neighborhood systems. Send manuscripts to: Professor Phil Barker (Editor) Department of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 4LP, ENGLAND Fax: 091 227 5108 (P.J.Barker@Newcastle.ac.uk) For subscription or single copies, either contact your usual supplier or: Routledge Subscriptions, ITPS Ltd., Cheriton House North Way, Andover SP10 5BE, United Kingdom Fax:+44(0)264 342807 Rates: Institution: $90.00 (USA/Can) Personal $46.00 6. ATTENTION IP MEMBERS ATTENDING AABT David Fresco will be maintaining of list of InterPsych members who will be attending the AABT in San Diego, CA., USA. Members interested in meeting should contact him at (firstname.lastname@example.org) 7. PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER COURSE SURVEY We are conducting a survey about the availability of a course on the PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER at the undergraduate level in Psychology. If your University program offers a course on this topic, could you please send us a short description of it (curriculum); please specify if the course is obligatory in your program. Please send your answer to (email@example.com) SECTION H: EMPLOYMENT -------------------------------------------------- | This section is intended for listing current job | | openings in positions relevant to InterPsych | | members. Send job postings to the IPN Mailbox: | | (firstname.lastname@example.org). | -------------------------------------------------- BOARD CERTIFIED PSYCHIATRIST The Augusta Mental Health Institute has an available position for a board certified psychiatrist to join a staff of ten in treating the most seriously ill in the State of Maine with state-of-the-art care. We offer the opportunity for satisfying practice in a friendly collegial environment. Salary and benefits are highly competitive. South-central Maine offers a comfortable and pleasant style of life. Please send your CV to William Anderson, M.D., Director of Clinical Services, Augusta Mental Health Institute, P.O. Box 724, Augusta ME 04332-0724 USA. DIRECTOR OF SOCIAL SERVICE-Maine Mental Health Facility Augusta Mental Health Institute is currently taking assertive steps to re-focus on its true mission and move toward a stronger emphasis on community based treatment. We are seeking an individual with strong leadership/administrative skills to guide the department of Social Work Services in the crucial role it will play in AMHI's future. We need a candidate with an MAW and at least 3 years of clinical background who has a thorough understanding of hospital/community systems with an emphasis on creative discharge planning. Specific experience with individuals suffering from major psychiatric disorders is essential. We offer a competitive salary and major benefits package offered to State of Maine employees. If you are looking for a challenge with the opportunity to truly make a difference, please send your resume and letter of application to: Nicole Morin-Scribner, Assistant Director of Human Services, P.O. Box 724, Augusta ME 04332-0724 USA AA/EOE _________________________________________________ INDIANA UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA invites applications for permanent, tenure-track positions in CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY (ASSOCIATE/FULL PROFESSOR) and DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (ASSISTANT PROFESSOR); initial appointment is for September, 1995. The current department of 24 offers an APA-accredited PsyD in clinical psychology which follows a practitioner model of training with a strong commitment to science-based education. Approximately 10-15 graduate students are accepted annually. The department also houses the Center for Applied Psychology, a clinical services facility, which provides opportunities for clinical training and research. On the undergraduate level, the department offers 1. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY (Associate/Full Professor, depending on qualifications): Applicants should have a doctorate from an APA-accredited program; eligibility for Pennsylvania licensure is desirable. Preference will be given to applicants who can contribute to graduate teaching and supervision in the area of psychological assessment and/or clinical neuropsychology. Outstanding applicants with expertise in other areas of clinical psychology including behavioral medicine and child/family therapy will be considered. 2. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (Assistant Professor): Applicants should have a doctorate in developmental psychology; preference will be given to applicants with a specialization in child psychology. Teaching responsibilities will include undergraduate courses in child and adolescent psychology; other course assignments will depend on the applicant's expertise and interests. FOR BOTH POSITIONS, a commitment to excellence in both undergraduate and graduate education and research is essential. Individual initiatives in any form of scholarly activity, including grant writing, are encouraged. IUP is the largest university in Pennsylvania's State System of Higher Education and is located approximately 50 miles northeast of Pittsburgh. Applications should be received by Feb. 15, 1995 for full consideration; review of applications will continue until the positions are filled. Letters of application, vitae, transcripts, three letters of reference (one of which must be from your current employer/supervisor), and supporting materials should be sent to: Dr. Mary Lou Zanich, Chair - Clinical Search Committee or Developmental Search Committee, 316-P Clark Hall, Department of Psychology, IUP, Indiana, PA 15705-1068. Women and minorities are especially encouraged to apply. IUP is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.