The InterPsych Newsletter 1(1)



Volume 1, Issue 3             ISSN 1355-2562                July, 1994 
-----------------             --------------                ---------- 
1.  The Role of the InterPsych Newsletter (line 42) 
2.  New Books (line 61) 
      2.1 Seminars in Psychiatric Geriatrics 
3.  Journals/Newsletters: (line 90) 
      3.1 The Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Review 
      3.2 The Prevention Researcher 
      3.3 Journal of Mental Health Administration 
      3.4 The International Journal of Communicative Psychoanalysis 
          and Psychotherapy 
4.  Articles: (line 221) 
      4.1 Dr Juan Carlos Garelli: "Evolutionary Considerations 
          Regarding the Adaptive Status of Depression." 
5.  Viewpoints: (line 500) 
      5.1 Sylvia Caras: "My Story" 
6.  Submissions from InterPsych Subscribers: (line 776) 
      6.1  The International Association for Group Psychotherapy 
      6.2  Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) 
      6.3  International Association of Child Psychiatry and 
           Allied Professions 
7.  New Lists: (line 1212) 
      7.1  Clinical Psychology 
      7.2  International Network for Interfaith Health Practices 
8.  Advertisements from those Seeking Placements (line 1297) 
9.  Calls for Research Collaborators (line 1304) 
10. Job Advertisements (line 1311) 
      10.1 Clinical Director, Cambridge, MA 
SECTION 1: The Role of the Newsletter 
This Newsletter performs an integrative role for the InterPsych group 
of scientific discussion forums. It is posted monthly to the 
psychiatry-superlist and reaches all members of psychiatry, 
psychiatry-assessment, psychiatry-resources, helplessness, 
depression, traumatic-stress, transcultural-psychology, clinical- 
psychology, child-psychiatry and psy-language. 
The membership includes redistribution lists in South America and 
the former Soviet Union, government departments, research institutes, 
publishers, and leading academics and clinicians at universities and 
hospitals throughout the world. The total distribution is probably in 
excess of 10,000. 
All contributions should be sent to; 
Ian Pitchford  
SECTION 2: New Books 
2.1 SEMINARS IN PSYCHIATRIC GENETICS (1994) is just out from the 
Royal College of Psychiatrists via Gaskell Press at only 10 
pounds.  It is meant to update, in a user friendly way, the 
classic by Slater & Cowie (1970) OUP. 
Authors are P. McGuffin, M. Owen, M. O'Donovan, A. Thapar, and 
I.I. Gottesman.  the first four are all Dept of Psychological 
Medicine, U of Wales Schl of Med, Cardiff and psychiatrists, the 
last is an American psychologist. 
Chapters include:3 on methods/strategies, mental retardation, 
schizophrenia, affective disorders, neurotic disorders, 
personality disorders and criminality, alcoholism childhood 
disorders, dementia, and counselling & ethics. 
If any of your 'staff' are into reviewing, please ask for a copy 
from Mr. Dave Jago, Royal College/Gaskell, 17 Belgrave Square, 
London SW1X 8PG [ FAX 071 245 1231] and mention my name. 
Irving I. Gottesman, Ph.D., Hon FRCPsych 
Sherrell J. Aston Professor 
Department of Psychology 
Gilmer Hall                            Email: 
University of Virginia                 Telephone:   804-924-0661 
Charlottesville, VA 22903-2453         Fax:         804-982-4766 
SECTION 3: Journals 
4420 West 10th Avenue 
Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6R 2H9 
Phone/Fax: (604) 222-2418 
E-mail address not yet established. 
The Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Review is concerned with 
psychoanalytic psychotherapy and theoretical, clinical, literary, 
academic, research, social and common-sense matters that impact on the 
practice and continuing development of psychoanalysis and 
The Review features articles, essays, reports, abstracts of research 
and presentations, controversies, poetry art and book reviews. 
Editor:  Katalina Bartok, MD, Ph.D, CCRFP, FRCP(C) 
Contributing Editors: 
Theo Dorpat, MD, DipPsych 
Carl Kline, MD, FRCP(C) 
James O Raney, MD, DipPsych 
Vesna Bonac, MA, C.Psych 
Penny Simpson, BA Hons Psych ( 
3.2 The Prevention Researcher 
 *  THE PREVENTION    Integrated Research Services, Inc.  * 
  *   RESEARCHER               66 Club Road, Suite 370   * 
   *                            Eugene, OR 97401-2464   * 
    *  Contents                  Phone: 503-683-9278   * 
     *  Alert                     Fax: 503-683-2621   * 
THE PREVENTION RESEARCHER newsletter is published bi-annually by 
Integrated Research Services, Inc., a non-profit research and 
education corporation specializing in substance abuse prevention and 
human performance.  The newsletter's publication was made possible by 
a federal research grant. 
To receive the printed newsletter THE PREVENTION RESEARCHER at no 
cost or obligation, please send your name, job title, mailing address, 
and telephone and fax number via Internet e-mail to 
Contents of Vol. 1, No. 1 - Spring 1994 
The first issue of THE PREVENTION RESEARCHER focuses on violence 
against women in America and features a brief article by violence 
prevention specialist Dr. Angela Browne.  Abstract: 
After almost two decades of trying to understand and respond to 
violence in partner relationships, the persistence of physical 
assaults between intimate partners force the prevention community to 
re-examine the problem. Experts estimate that 25% to 34% of all women 
will be assaulted by an intimate male partner during adulthood; a 
survey of 930 women revealed that rape by a husband or ex-husband was 
twice as common as rape by strangers or acquaintances.  Approximately 
70% of murdered women are victims of their current or former husbands 
or boyfriends.  Most believe that a women should leave her partner 
immediately after a physical assault; however, this is when she may be 
least able to make or plan such a move.  Even leaving the partner 
often does not end the violence; the fear of abused women that their 
assailant may find them and retaliate is often justified.  Thus, many 
women rather tolerate the domestic situation of abuse that constant 
fear of reprisals they would feel if they left it. 
The second piece is by noted psychologist and intervention specialist 
Dr. Jack Dresser.  Abstract: The Violence Against Women Act within the 
Senate's Omnibus Crime Bill is an important legislative step, but 
unlikely to greatly change the root causes of the problem.  Violence 
is a societal "dysfunction" resulting from society's members' lack of 
skill to resolve conflicts and provide mutual support.  Prevention, 
rather than the threat of retribution, is the key to decreasing 
violence.  As a first step, the fact that there IS a problem has to be 
acknowledged.  Secondly, in the United States, an awareness has to be 
developed just how common and accepted violent behavior is in 
comparison with other cultures.  To overcome American society's lack 
of both cohesion and control -- both conflict- minimizing factors -- 
the skill of negotiation has to be taught to Americans, beginning in 
childhood.  The role models presented to children need to be 
individuals who use intellectual and emotional skills to solve 
problems, not -- as most "heroes" from cartoon characters to movie 
actors now do -- violence. 
3.3 Journal of Mental Health Administration 
The Journal of Mental Health Administration is published 
quarterly by Sage Publications, Inc.  It is a peer-reviewed, multi- 
disciplinary journal which publishes articles on the organization, 
financing, and delivery of behavioral health (mental health and 
substance abuse) services.  The Journal is indexed and abstracted in a 
vast number of services, including Current Contents, Excerpta 
Medica/EMBASE, HEALTH Planning and Administration Database (MEDLARS), 
Hospital Literature Index, Mental Health Abstracts, Psychological 
Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, as well as many other 
abstract/indexing services. 
One year individual subscription rate is $45.00.  One year 
institutional subscription rate is $75.60.  A sample issue of the 
Journal is available upon request. All foreign orders must be paid in 
U.S. funds. For further subscription information, contact: 
Journal Subscription Department 
Sage Publications, Inc. 
Post Office Box 5084 
Thousand Oaks, California  91359 
TEL: (805) 499-0721 
FAX: (805) 499-0871 
3.4 The International Journal of Communicative Psychoanalysis 
and Psychotherapy. 
Address:  William B. Goodheart, M.D., Editor 
          25 Wiltshire Avenue, 
          Larkspur, CA 94939 
This journal includes articles that address events and behaviors that 
enhance or interrupt therapy. 
SECTION 4: Articles 
4.1 Juan Carlos Garelli: Evolutionary Considerations Regarding the 
Adaptive Status of Depression 
On considering a human psychological trait -such as depression- 
adaptive in a Darwinian sense, a few basic tenets should previously be 
raised and eventually agreed upon, in order to make sure that when the 
term "adaptive" is mentioned we are all speaking the same language. 
For a human behavioural trait to have evolved as an Evolutionary 
Stable Strategy (ESS) (Maynard-Smith, 1975) it should prove to be 
endowed with a differential survival advantage in man's Environment of 
Evolutionary Adaptedness (Bowlby, 1969/82). Since these 
Darwinian conceptualizations are far from evident and can thus be 
hardly taken for granted, I start the article with a brief description 
of current evolutionary thinking further to elaborate on depression 
embedded in this particular setting. 
Natural Selection 
The process that determines the evolutionary history of a species is 
Natural Selection. This is the differential reproductive success of 
individuals within a population that occurs because of hereditary 
differences among them. Charles Darwin was the first man to recognize 
that if some members of a group of animals have more progeny, because 
of their inherited makeup, than other member, then evolutionary change 
will take place (Darwin 1859). Darwin developed the theory of natural 
selection at a time when the concept of gene as the unit of heredity 
was unknown to him. That is why he had to deal with rather abstract 
principles. He actually founded his theory on 3 principles: 1. the 
principle of variety: individuals of the same species vary in their 
ability to leave more reproductive offspring; 2. the principle of 
heredity, whereby progeny resemble direct ancestors more than any 
other member of the population; and 3. the principle of natural 
selection. whereby individuals that differ in certain traits also 
differ in their ability to leave reproductive descendants. (Garelli 
We are now in a better position to reformulate the key observations 
and deductions of Darwin in modern genetic terms. This will enable us 
to understand the evidence and logic underlying an evolutionary 
approach to animal behaviour. All organisms have genes; all living 
things have within them nucleic acids that contain in coded form 
information about protein synthesis. Among other things, this 
information regulates the development of the individual. Within a 
species, many genes are present in 2 or more alternative forms or 
alleles. Different alleles code for slightly different forms of the 
same protein and thereby provide somewhat different influences 
on the development of individuals. This contributes to variation in 
the characteristics of the members of a species. 
Populations are limited in size. No population can grow forever. Most 
populations fluctuate in a fairly narrow range about an average 
number. The number of copies of each gene in a population is therefore 
limited. Consequently, it follows that there will be competition 
between alleles of a gene to occupy the limited number of spaces in a 
gene pool. If one allele over a period of time consistently makes more 
surviving copies of itself than another, it will eventually replace 
the alternative form within the population. This is natural selection. 
Furthermore, the living members of any modern species have within 
them alleles that have generally been successful at copying 
themselves and passing from generation to generation; that is, these 
alleles have been "selected for". Because the development of traits is 
regulated genetically, we should expect that the characteristics of 
organisms will tend to help an individual's genes survive. The logic 
of natural selection requires that over time animals will evolve 
behavioural adaptations that promote the survival of genes that 
underlie advantageous traits. Genes in individuals that are 
reproductive failures will tend to be eliminated -that is why genes 
for depressive behavioural traits are unlikely to be present in 
human's genome-; genes with the capacity to steer development along 
lines that produce reproductively successful individuals should tend 
to survive -that is the case of attachment behaviour. All the evolved 
characteristics of an individual, be they developmental mechanisms, 
physiological systems or behavioural capabilities should be related to 
the survival of the genes within the individual. Seen in this light, 
life is essentially an unconscious contest among different alleles 
to survive and replace alternative forms. E.O.Wilson has vividly 
expressed this view with his epigram: "An organism is DNA's way of 
making more DNA". Genes may survive indefinitely, whereas individuals 
do not; they are merely "survival machines" (to use Dawkins' metaphor 
(1976)), produced by a set of genes for the welfare of those genes. 
An evolutionary approach to behaviour -as that adopted by Bowlby's 
theory of attachment- rests on the concept of natural selection. And 
natural selection operates on the species' environment of evolutionary 
adaptedness: in the case of homo sapiens, the environment in which the 
species emerged: long before the agricultural revolution, about 10,000 
years ago, probably about a million years ago. Because genes have been 
selected for their ability to survive, an evolutionary approach 
predicts that all the evolved characteristics of an animal should 
tend to promote the survival of the genes that underlie these 
characters. Therefore, the fundamental evolutionary question about 
behavioural traits is: how might a behavioural action help maximize 
the individual's fitness? This inquiry is crucial for the 
understanding of attachment behaviour and some of its pathological 
outcomes: e.g., depression. 
Animal behaviour is the outcome of a complex developmental process 
that is regulated by the genes. The connection between the genes and 
behaviour is an indirect one, with many intervening steps between 
chromosomes and behavioural responses. Genes regulate enzyme 
production, which in turn controls the development of the 
physiological mechanisms necessary for behaviour. Although a full 
understanding of these events is still in its infancy, there 
is an increasing body of knowledge about the links between genes, 
neurophysiology, behaviour, and the environment. 
Behavioural Systems Underlying Attachment 
If we define attachment as a genetic bias all infants are endowed 
with to seek and keep proximity to their caregivers, we shall see the 
component, discrete behaviours, such as smiling, crying, following, 
approaching, clinging, as expressions of the underlying attachment 
behaviour system. Like all other behavioural systems, the attachment 
behaviour system is activated, regulated and terminated under certain 
circumstances. For example, infants are known to desire closer contact 
with the caregiver (the attachment figure) when thy are ill, tired, 
frightened or in certain prepotent situations such as unfamiliar 
environment or darkness. When the infant achieves locomotion a new 
behavioural system becomes activated: that of exploratory behaviour. 
Exploration of the environment is antithetical to attachment. It is of 
the utmost importance to focus the relationship of the infant to his 
mother as keeping a balance in the interplay between both 
systems. One of the most important functions of the attachment 
behavioural system is to intervene in the infant's excursions into 
the environment, in response to a variety of potentially dangerous 
events, thereby deactivating the exploratory system and activating the 
attachment system, thus seeking proximity or contact to his mother. 
(Bowlby 1973, Ainsworth 1982). Several studies show that the children 
approach their caregivers not only in response to dangerous stimuli 
but also they do so to check the availability and attentiveness of 
the caregiver, in a sort of permanent monitoring activity, after which 
the child wanders off to play again; after a while he returns again, 
and so on and so forth. This kind of behavioural pattern is referred 
to in the literature as the baby using his mother as a secure base 
(Ainsworth 1978). 
Social Evolution 
Many animal species have evolved behavioural systems that lead the 
individuals of such species to behave cooperatively. Social 
communities are so widespread in nature that a taxonomic 
classification proves almost impossible: it ranges from species to 
families to phyla; e.g., invertebrates like ants or bees to 
vertebrates such as fish, birds and mammals. Such striking deployment 
of social organization calls for an evolutionary explanation. Genes 
that favoured cooperative behaviour, reciprocity and communication, 
protection and care towards other members of the species - generally 
close kin- have been selected for (Wilson 1975). 
One of the most important evolutionary movers to cause socialization 
is defence against predation. Let us remember that natural selection 
favours individuals whose progeny reaches reproductive age. 
Therefore, in order to avoid extinction, it is necessary to protect 
the young. The ability to avoid early death in a population represents 
the degree of differential mortality among the species. A major 
component of natural selection is high pre-reproductive mortality. In 
all species -with the exception of recent human history- more 
individuals die in each generation than survive to reproductive age. 
Darwin realized that high reproductive mortality was a necessity, a 
logical necessity. It followed from a single fact regarding nature, 
that is, that over long periods of time, the amount of living material 
on the earth does not increase, or increases very slowly. This means 
that for a typical species, numbers must remain relatively constant 
from generation to generation. Otherwise, the total biomass of living 
creatures would increase year after year. Once we assume that numbers 
remain relatively constant, then it is easy to calculate how many 
individuals in each generation die before reproduction. Human beings 
probably have the slowest natural rate of increase of any living 
creature, and we know that until the discovery of agriculture about 
10,000 years ago, human numbers increased very slowly (Leakey 1981). 
If a woman who survives through adulthood has about 6 children, then 
we know - for numbers to have stayed constant- that 4 of these 6 must 
have perished. We know from studies of contemporary hunter-gatherer 
cultures that about 20% of the children born perish in the first year 
of life (Trivers 1985, Garelli 1984). Darwin saw clearly that the 
tremendous reproductive potential of all creatures must result in 
intense competition to survive, a competition that would result in non- 
random differential mortality. Those creatures who happen to be born 
with characteristics that make it easier to survive will endure while 
others will fall the wayside. Now what could be a deterrent to non- 
random mortality, that is, what could reduce the exposure to 
predatory animals, especially among younger member of species? 
Grouping as in bird flocks or fish schools, socialization, 
cooperation, parental care and attachment. 
Can Depression be Considered Adaptive? 
A postlorenzian ethologist would certainly deem a depressive 
condition maladaptive, since chronically proving no threat to 
predators only enhances the individual's chance to become their 
favourite prey. Predators differentially predate on defenceless 
animals, such as youths, juveniles. or otherwise handicapped 
Harmlessness -actually harmlessness or defencelessness displays- may 
prove adaptive while ocassionally fighting for hierarchical ranks 
intraspecifically, never interspecifically. Furthermore, depression, 
not as a clinical condition, but as. e.g., a normal phase of mourning, 
may prove adaptive within the social structure of a species but highly 
dangerous in the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. 
The reverse, denial of depression is, according to Bowlby (Attachment 
and Loss, vol 3: Loss, p. 72), similarly maladaptive, for individuals 
inclined to deny the nature of their affliction "... are more prone to 
suffer breakdowns in functioning when, for periods lasting weeks, 
months or years, they may be unable to deal effectively with their 
To my mind depression mainly stems from our our being an extremely 
social species. I think we are social as from birth -and very probably 
before that, too. We are deeply biased to seek and keep both physical 
and emotional proximity to a distinct, preferred figure: the 
attachment figure, in Bowlby's terms. Temporary or permanent 
separation or loss of the attachment figure brings about a normal 
process: mourning. And there is no mourning without depression. 
Moreover, as stated above, if no depression becomes apparent, a 
pathological condition ensues: denial of mourning. If, on the other 
hand, depression is never overcome, we face another 
psychopathological syndrome: chronic mourning. 
Consequently, I can think of two possible outcomes: either we consider 
depression an inevitable consequence of loss, thereby putting the 
individual at risk of annihilation -cf. above about the high mortality 
rate in prehistoric man- or parental bonding and attachment have been 
selected for - among other things- to prevent depression from ocurring 
and thus saving the affected individual from sure extinction. In any 
case, selection, whether natural or artificial could hardly be 
expected to produce individuals prone to form attachment and 
affectional bonds and simultaneously spare them the pain accompanying 
Ainsworth, M. (1982) Attachment: retrospect and prospect. In: CM 
Parkes & J. Stevenson-Hinde (eds.) The place of attachment in human 
behaviour. New YorK: Basic Books. 
Ainsworth, M. et al (1978) Patterns of attachment. Lawrence Erlbaum. 
Bowlby, J. (1969/82) A&L, vol. 1: Attachment. Basic Books. 
Bowlby, J. (1973) A&L, vol. 2: Separation. The Hogarth Press. 
Bowlby, J. (1980) A&L, vol. 3: Loss. The Hogarth Press. 
Darwin, C. (1859) The Origin of Species. Pelican Classics (1979). 
Dawkins, R. (1976) The Selfish Gene. OUP. 
Garelli, J.C. (1983) Bases biologicas del miedo y la angustia 
(Biological bases of fear and anxiety). Buenos Aires, Psicoanalisis, 
5, 477-503 
Garelli, J.C. (1984) Bases etologicas de la teoria del apego 
(Ethological roots of the theory of attachment). Buenos Aires, 
Psicoanalisis, 6, 119-145. 
Leakey, R.E. (1981) The Making of Mankind. The Bumbridge Publishing 
Maynard-Smith, J. (1975) The theory of evolution. Pelican. 
Trivers, R.L. (1985) Social evolution. Bejamin/ Cummings. 
Wilson, E.O. (1975) Sociobiology: the new synthesis. Harvard 
University Press. 
SECTION 5: Viewpoints 
5.1: Sylvia Caras: "My Story" 
                          My Story 
My Personal View 
Politics and the User Movement 
The Value For Me in Communicating Electronically 
     Electronic Mail 
     The Practical 
     Specific to madness 
Stories of internet impact on persons' lives are being 
collected as part of the move to develop community networks. 
I asked others to write up and submit their own stories; I 
worked on the history of ThisIsCrazy.  And I realized that I 
ought also to tell my own story. 
My story explains my attachment to electronic internet mail. 
My story looks at why I am so satisfied in these 
traditionally, male, young, sometimes cutthroat, retaliatory 
surroundings, why I am at home here even though I am a 
grandmother, inclusive and conciliatory. 
And my story relates why electronic networking is especially 
important to me as a person with a psychiatric diagnosis, a 
person with a silenced voice, a mad woman. 
My Personal View 
Fundamental to owning a psychiatric diagnosis is the 
experience of exclusion.  On the internet, I do not have to 
wear my anti-exclusion armor.  The essential me may 
subscribe, unsubscribe, post; to disclose, I have to overtly 
reveal most of my categories and classes. 
On the internet, I am stretched; I am learning a new set of 
nuances, a new way to see what another means, a new way to 
be available and responsive.  I receive enough feedback- 
that-I-believe to demonstrate to me that I am good at what I 
am doing.  The corroboration sustains and energizes me. 
Politics and the User Movement 
In recent years, the user movement has had no dependable 
national information source, no newsletter, no organization, 
no resource directory, no way to grow as a movement, and, 
what exasperated me the most, no opportunity for newcomers. 
Command and connections remained with the networked old 
I had something to say, I had an experience and a point of 
view.  I wanted in. 
The lack of network was explained away by "no money," "no 
funding," "we are all volunteers." 
I knew how to make a beginning with not too much money. 
And I know how to leverage the internet costs. 
My own goal was that information and knowledge should be 
shared;  I wanted a tool so that everyone should have access 
to everything.  Then each could do as they wanted. 
As a movement, we have been reactive to the models we knew, 
authoritarian and paternalistic.  We became anarchic or 
compliant.  The internet is a milieu almost without models 
and that forces empowerment without much personal or 
systemic resistance.  The internet is involvement.  And 
involvement on a human, anecdotal scale with unsung people 
and modest events creates a demonstrable critical mass of 
caring and community. 
The Value For Me in Communicating Electronically 
                    Electronic Mail 
The Practical 
Effect       Compelling effective use of my self, my time. 
Universe     Reaches an expanded population, a population 
             large enough to meet interests too 
             specialized for face-to-face communities. 
Content      Electronic contacts have more clarity, are 
             less fuzzy, are shorter. 
Time         Less overall time than voice, snail mail, or 
Speed        Faster potential turnaround than for snail 
             mail or fax. 
Turnaround   Turnaround for voice mail depends on whether 
             desired person was reached, or human or 
             recording device took a message. 
Cost         Reduces long distance charges for voice 
             Reduces snail mail postage costs. 
             Reduces cost of supplies -- envelopes, paper, 
             postcards, labels, staples, duplicating, and 
             laser cartridges. 
Mental       A mostly mental, very sedentary activity. 
Undemanding  Requires less of me; can use even when I am 
             low, tired, or otherwise ill at ease with 
Informal     Has the informality of speech and the focus 
             of writing. 
Accurate     Quoting creates feedback and accuracy of 
Control      I control the pace of my participation; I may 
             reply spontaneously or thoughtfully. 
Balance      My concision and another's verboseness stay 
             in balance better than in an oral dialogue. 
             I don't feel overwhelmed, or as if I have 
             less of a chance. 
Clarity      I have to deal with fewer levels of 
             communication.  The hidden agendas and non- 
             verbals of verbal exchange, which also 
             require attention, are reduced, the pauses 
             and intonations.  The stroking and grooming 
             of social exchange is reduced.  Impact of 
             non-verbals, social station, work rank, ... 
             is reduced.  Also eliminated are the status 
             cues of stationery and the more formal 
             language (sometimes generated by levels of 
             preview and review of print). 
Sensory ease Sensory input is reduced; no auditory, no new 
             kinesthetic; no visual except words.  Since I 
             am extremely aware and often experience 
             sensory overload, this reduction is very 
             functional, calming.  Like paper (as compared 
             to oral), the level of input is reduced. 
Challenge    My thinking is challenged more than in oral 
Focus        More focus, less foreplay.  Courtesy is 
             present and abbreviated.  Dialogue is more 
             content oriented; I am a thinker and the 
             content is why I am communicating. 
Rhythm       I may participate often without being greedy; 
             I may observe without feeling uncooperative. 
Choice       I may or may not read another's post; no one 
             has to read my posts. 
Rules        I may respond without invitation and without 
             regard to "appropriateness" of my 
             relationship to the author, without deference 
             or humility, merely with content. 
             The only place where I've been attacked is 
             when I've posted from the user point of view 
             about disability and coercion issues to one 
             of the health care reform lists (HEALTHRE), 
             and to the psychiatry list.  On the 
             psychiatry list there was as well 
             appreciation and thanks. 
Level fields The real action is not behind the 
             scenes; the real action is fully public. 
Valuing      I am measured by the content and style of my 
             post, not my age, presence, education, bond 
             weight of my stationery, pearls, ...  . 
             I feel my good mind is valued; I feel I am 
Multiplicity I am able to respond from curiosity, 
             from pragmatism, from philosophy -- to 
             one place, with one post. 
             I like labeling myself a cyberjock. 
Heard        Someone listens; usually someone replies; I 
             am heard. 
             When I'm heard, I feel appreciated; I feel 
             worthy; I feel understood; I feel respected; 
             I feel affirmed. 
Manageable   Most of the e mail and internet obstacles are 
             obstacles of software; that's easier for me 
             to challenge and adjust to than obstacles of 
Democratic   Instantaneous transmission of same to many; 
             transforms the information pyramid into a 
Tailored     Customized. 
             Action is in real time, is evolving, protean. 
Reduced risk There's no risk to access; there's no risk to 
             There's minimal risk to post. 
             And I am involved in a safe way; I can 
             marshall 200 People Who in 200 seconds if 
             coercion is threatened. 
             (People Who is short for people who 
             experience mood swings, fear, voices and 
             visions.  People Who was also the name of the 
             hand managed list that preceded ThisIsCrazy. 
             People Who existed from January 27 to April 
             16 1994.  The first message went to 17 
             subscribers, the last to 56.  On 062894, 
             ThisIsCrazy had 82 subscribers from 7 
             countries and was sending about 45 messages 
             per week.) 
Constancy    The resource, my community is continually 
Efficacy     I'm good at this. 
Concision    I know how to write a one screen message 
             (maybe 125 words). 
Congruence   I know how to hear what another is writing, 
             and to post responsively. 
State        I'm present, focussed, not distracted (or I'm 
             in some other space).  I'm less sealed off, 
             more involved not in a virtuality, but in, 
             for me, an expanded reality.  There is an 
             intensity and an intimacy (Is there an analog 
             to hallucination, psychosis, a getting close 
             to this edge?  It takes me a while to "come 
             back;" where have I been?) 
Specific to Madness 
Safety net   I can tailor access to the best hours for me. 
             I can find support when I need it, even early 
             morning hours, without triggering crisis 
             responses, and without feeling judged for my 
             rhythms.  The internet is continually 
             available, 24 hours, 7 days, even Christmas 
             and Thanksgiving and Super Bowl Sunday. 
             I can depend on access and input.  This risk 
             of not being able to access is only the risk 
             of my own computer going down, my provider 
             going down, there being no electricity, or 
             worst of all, there being no messages in my 
             groups.  Thus, I am minimally exposed, have 
             minimum vulnerability, need to put less 
             attention towards maintain defensible 
             personal boundaries. 
Support      Broadens knowledge base of People Who about 
             their label and its connection to other 
             labels -- allergies, learning disabilities, 
             chemical sensitivities, ... 
Sociability  Electronic involvement has led me to more 
             face-to-face involvement rather than less, 
             the isolation which concerned me.  I feel my 
             assurance enhanced by my dependable 
             accessible community. 
Lobbying     Timely, effective, inexpensive 
Direction    Depression cast me away from the middle class 
             matron script that I'd learned when very 
             young.  I drifted uncharted. 
Commonality  E mail reduces my negative exceptionality. 
             I find commonality and because of support, I 
             reduce the burden of uniqueness.  Space is 
             created for my positive exceptionality. 
             Through e mail, I speak in a firm clear 
             voice.; owner 
June 29, 1994 
SECTION 6: Submissions from Subcribers 
The International Association of Group Psychotherapy was founded in 
1954, and was incorporated in Switzerland. The IAGP is an inclusive, 
umbrella organization for individuals and associations with a 
professional involvement in group psychotherapy. It serves the 
development of group psychotherapy in the areas of theory, practice, 
research and training. The IAGP links together an international 
community of qualified professionals through world and regional 
congresses, publications and other activities designed to promote 
dialogue in the study of small and large groups and other types of 
social organizations, and in the treatment of human problems within 
group modalities. The opportunity for meeting professionals from 
different societies, cultures and political systems has great 
potential for furthering international cooperation for purposes of 
research, training and clinical work. The IAGP welcomes individuals 
and organizations with diversified theoretical frameworks and 
In over forty years of activity, the Association has accomplished 
many major organizational achievements. It now presents to its 
* Triennial International Congresses 
* Regional Congresses 
A MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY, which is a valuable resource of qualified 
international group psychotherapists and organizations of group 
psychotherapists of diverse orientations. 
membership articles of scientific and professional interest as well 
as communicating news about colleagues and events that are of 
professional importance. The FORUM is published quarterly, and mailed 
to members. 
SCHOLARSHIPS for Congresses. 
Discount subscriptions to certain professional journals and books. 
THE 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS will take place in Buenos Aires in 
Members are eligible for reduced registration fees to IAGP sponsored 
PAST CONGRESSES have been in Montreal - 1992, Amsterdam - 1989, 
Zagreb - 1986, Mexico City - 1985, Copenhagen - 1980, Philadelphia - 
1977, Zurich - 1973, Vienna - 1968, Milan - 1963, Zurich - 1957, and 
Toronto - 1954. 
IAGP thrives and evolves through the active involvement of its 
international members. Your participation in the process, as an 
individual or as an organization, is highly valued. 
Membership is open to bona fide group psychotherapists who are 
sponsored by two current members of IAGP. Please contact Dr Giovanni 
Boria, Individual Membership Chair, Viale San Gimignano 10, 1-20146 
Milan, Italy. Telephone: Fax: 
The membership fee is paid upon notification of acceptance and 
entitles the member to all privileges of membership until the 
conclusion of the next international congress. 
The fee for Individual Membership is $150.00 (US) for the three 
year term adjusted pro rata for shorter periods. A reduced fee of 
$75.00 (US) is payable in special situations in countries where there 
is financial hardship, and where that is not possible a voluntary fee 
may be accepted to cover basic administrative and mailing costs. A 
minimum of $30.00 (US) is suggested. 
When applying for Organizational Membership a letter of 
application should include the Name of the President, By-laws, a 
brief description of the type of organization (i.e. training, 
research, professional) theoretical orientation, goals, founding 
year, number of members, admission requirements and scientific 
programs. The person nominated as correspondent must include letters 
of sponsorship from two IAGP members who are familiar with the 
Organization. Send to Dr Raquel Berman, Organizational Membership 
Chair, Arquimedes 3 - 6 Piso, 11580 Mexico D.F. Mexico. Telephone 525- 
280-4386; Fax: 525-280-2115. 
The organizational membership fee is calculated pro rata, 
according to the size of the applying organization once the 
organizational membership has been approved by the Board [Example 500 
members = $500.00]. It has been agreed by the Board of Directors that 
a lower membership fee may be approved temporarily in cases of 
financial hardship. 
August 27 - September 1, 1995 
Buenos Aires, Argentina 
Theme: "Groups at the Doorstep of the New Century" 
For Congress information contact: 
Janine Puget, M.D. 
Host Organizing Committee Chair 
Paraguay 2475 
1121 Buenos Aires, Argentina 
Tel: 54(1) 961-3445 Fax: 54(1) 963-5075 
Monica Zuretti, M.D., Argentina 
Dr J.Stuart Whiteley FRCPsych 
33 Wheelers Lane 
RH3 7LA, UK. 
Tel: (44) 737 843446 Fax: (44) 737 843634 
J.L. Moreno, M.D. (deceased) 
6.2 The Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) 
University of South Florida 
Tampa, Florida 33612 - 3899 
Research, Training and Demonstration Programs 
FMHI's mission is to strengthen mental health services throughout the 
state of Florida. As the state's primary research and training 
facility for mental health, FMHI conducts research, education, and 
demonstration programs. 
FMHI is composed of four departments, Aging and Mental Health, Child 
and Family Studies, Community Mental Health, and the Department of 
Mental Health Law and Policy. FMHI's research focuses on issues of 
importance to policymakers, service providers, academicians, consumers 
and the public. The Institute conducts both basic and applied 
research, in such areas as epidemiology, service system delivery, 
treatment effectiveness, and program evaluation. In house support for 
research endeavors include a well equipped library , computer support 
center, and media center. 
Through its education and training programs, FMHI provides supervised 
field placements for students, offers continuing education for 
professionals, and furnishes consultation and technical assistance 
upon request. FMHI's demonstration projects support research and 
educational objectives. These services are provided directly by the 
Institute or in conjunction with participating agencies. 
As part of the state university system, FMHI works with local, state 
and national agencies to provide a public/academic partnership that 
addresses mental health issues. At the state level, FMHI works closely 
with the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS), the 
Department of Corrections (DOC), and the Department of Education 
(DOE), as well as the state legislature. 
FMHI anticipates receiving $5 million in grants and contracts during 
the 1992-93 fiscal year. Granting agencies include the National 
Institutes of Health ( NIH), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health 
Services Administration (SAMHSA), the U.S. Department of Education, 
private foundations, and state agencies. In addition to these 
externally-funded projects, many of the research and training 
programs at FMHI are funded with general revenue dollars allocated to 
USF as part of the university system's Education and General (E&G) 
INSTITUTE-WIDE TRAINING PROGRAMS Predoctoral Clinical Psychology 
Internship Program. The Florida Mental Health Institute provides a 12- 
month, intensively supervised program for Ph.D. level clinical 
psychology graduate students. This American Psychological Association 
(APA) accredited program is one of a few in the country that exposes 
interns to public sector service and public policy issues. 
Multicultural Mental Health Training Program. This program, designed 
to attract minority students to mental health fields, provides 
graduate and undergraduate students with experience in clinical, 
professional development, and cross-cultural skills. The training 
program consists of classroom instruction and supervised practical 
experiences in the community and at FMHI. 
   Max Dertke, Ph.D. 
   (813) 974-4533 
   SunCom 574-4533 
   Fax (813) 974-4406 
Mosaic Admin: 
6.3 International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 
and Allied Professions. 
History of The International Association for Child and Adolescent 
Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP) 
Gerald Caplan, M.D., Reimer Jensen, fil.dr.h.c.,  and Serge 
Lebovici, M.D. 
Part I. The Foundation of the Association. 
Pioneers in European Child Psychiatry as Dr.Georges Heuyer of France, 
Dr.M. Tramer of Switzerland, Professor H. Stutte of Germany, Professor 
Carlos de Sanctis of Italy, Dr. Nic. Waal of Norway and Dr. Emanuel 
Miller of England,  formed in 1935 a group which worked 
for establishing and expanding contact between psychiatrists working 
in the field of child psychiatry. The International Association of 
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions emerged from 
this initiative. The first International Conference on 
Child Psychiatry was held in Paris in 1937 in association with the 
Mental Hygiene Conference. It was organized by Dr.Georges Heuyer 
who was the president of the Paris Conference. At a business meeting 
during the conference, The International Committee for 
Child Psychiatry(Le Comite International de Psychiatrie Infantile) 
was founded for the purpose of linking together those interested in 
child psychiatry in various countries,  and for organizing further 
international conferences. Professor Schroeder of Germany (Leipzig) 
was elected President, Dr. Heuyer was elected Vice President, Dr. 
M.Tramer Secretary-General, Dr. Leon Michaux of France 
Assistant Secretary-General, and Dr. H.Brantmay of Switzerland 
Treasurer. The second conference was planned to be held in Leipzig 
in 1941, but  Dr.Schroeder died and the Second World War made it 
impossible to arrange any international meetings for a while.  In 
September 1945 the officers of the International Committee for Child 
Psychiatry met in Zurich and it was decided to hold the second 
conference in London with Dr.J.R.Rees as President. Dr. Gerald Caplan 
of England (London) became Secretary-General succeeding Dr.Tramer, 
who was elected a Vice President. No list of child psychiatrists in 
various countries existed at that time, and it was quite a difficult 
job to trace people in the field and organize the conference. It was 
held in London 11-14 August 1948, together with the International 
Conference on Mental Health. Dr. J. R. Rees was the President of all 
three conferences.  An ad hoc committee was set up in order to discuss 
the program for the Child Psychiatry meeting. This committee included 
Dr.John Bowlby, Dr.M. Fordham, Ms. Anna Freud, Dr.Emanuel  Miller, 
Dr. Kenneth Soddy and Dr.D.W. Winnicott. Together with colleagues 
from the continent, they set up the program which concentrated on 
aggression. Much discussion took place on the topic of eligibility 
for membership of the conference. It  was "decided to open 
the membership widely so as to include registered medical 
practitioners with psychiatric qualifications or training, non- 
medical people technically qualified to work in child guidance 
clinics and institutions, or who were engaged in the psychiatric 
treatment of children, e.g., educational and clinical psychologists, 
child analysts and psychotherapists and psychiatric social workers. 
It was decided to admit others with relevant experience,  subject 
to acceptance by the credentials committee."  (Proceedings  of  the 
conference 1948.) The interdisciplinary characteristic of the 
Association was already stressed then even if it took some years 
officially to include the allied professions in the name of the 
Association. Much controversy on the subject was stirred up from time 
to time.  At a business meeting held during the conference, "The 
International Association for Child Psychiatry" was founded by... 
representatives from thirty countries. 
Part 2. Congresses of the Association after 1948 
The third congress was to be held U.S. in 1952; however, it was 
postponed until 1954 and held in Toronto, Canada. The Secretary 
General had died and was replaced by Dr. Gerald Caplan who took over 
responsibility for the arrangement of the congress. The theme was, 
"Emotional Problems of Early Childhood." Among 57 papers submitted 
for presentation, some were selected to cover the following topics: 
Psychosis of Early Childhood. 
Problems of Preventive Psychiatry. 
The Relation of Physical and Emotional Factors. 
Problems of Motherhood. 
Separation and Hospitalization. 
Already on that occasion a certain format was created for the 
arrangement of the conference which has been characteristic of later 
congresses held by the Association. 
The multidisciplinary approach was kept and the themes of each 
congress prepared by International Preparatory Commissions of Study 
Groups. Presentations and discussions in these groups have been 
published before each congress to inform the participants beforehand 
about crucial problems to be dealt with at the meetings and hopefully 
to heighten the level of discussions at the meetings as well as to 
increase the interest in working with the topics during the congress 
as well as after. It was intended to activate as many members as 
possible. Evaluations of the congresses proved that it was possible to 
arrange the meeting so that an unusually great number of participants 
could be active in some way in the presentations, discussions and 
group meetings. At the General Assembly held during the congress in 
Toronto in 1954, Dr. Jenny Roudinesco-Aubry of France in the was 
elected President, Mrs. Kirsten Vedel Rasmussen of Denmark, Secretary 
General, and Dr. Gerald Caplan of the U.S.A. Treasurer.  The congress 
in 1958 was held in Lisbon, Portugal. Dr. Aubry had resigned for 
personal reasons and was replaced by Professor Victor Fontes of 
Portugal. He was succeeded by Dr. Am van Krevelen of Holland. 
The congress in 1962 was held in Scheveningen in Holland with the 
main theme: Prevention of Mental Disorders in Children. On that 
occasion Dr. Gerald Caplan introduced another idea which was very 
successful and repeated at later congresses: main speakers and 
chairpersons of symposia formed a group at the last plenary session 
where questions raised during the meetings could be discussed in a 
large group. In these summation panels, the highlights of the congress 
were stressed and new perspectives indicated.  At the 1966 congress in 
Edinburgh, Scotland, Dr. John Bowlby of England was President. The 
theme was adolescence. Dr. Serge Lebovici of France became President 
and Dr. D. J. Duche of France Secretary General. At the assembly, the 
by-laws were discussed and the newly elected Executive was asked to 
present a revision of the by-laws at the following congress in 
order to extend the possibilities for membership to other professional 
groups, for instance, educators working in the field. 
According to this decision, a new constitution was presented and 
passed at the general assembly held during the congress in Jerusalem 
in 1970. The theme was: The child in his family. Of special interest 
was the presentations of research in relation to the rearing of 
children in kibbutzim. Dr. James Anthony of the U.S.A. was elected 
President and Dr. Albert J. Solnit Secretary General. On that 
occasion, Dr. Gerald Caplan resigned as an officer of the Association 
after having served for 25 years, most of the time as Treasurer. Dr. 
Caplan had worked for  the Association from its start and put in a 
strong effort to develop it to an International and multidisciplinary 
association of high standards. He had established contact with 
important foundations, especially the Grant Foundation and the Field 
Foundation during a period of 16 years which made it possible for 
International Study Groups to meet between the International 
congresses, to prepare the programs for these meetings, to publish 
reports that inaugurated the themes of coming congresses, and to meet 
with experts in the field in different areas of the world. 
As an acknowledgement of Dr. Caplan's hard work for the Association 
and his very competent contribution to the development of the 
Association and its professional standards, the Grant Foundation 
offered money to make it possible to invite an outstanding expert 
within the field to lecture during the first Part of future 
congresses. Dr. Caplan was elected Honorary President of the 
Association and since then, The Gerald Caplan lecture has been held at 
each of the International congresses, usually by the retiring 
President of the Association. 
The theme in 1974 in Philadelphia was: Children at Risk. Dr. Albert J. 
Solnit was elected President and Peter Neubauer of the 
U.S.A. Secretary General. It was decided to accept an invitation from 
Australia to hold the next congress in Melbourne. Dr. Winston Rickards 
was Treasurer. In spite of the distance, quite a few people from 
Europe and the U.S. came to Melbourne in 1978, but not unexpectedly, 
most members came from Australia, New Zealand and the Far East. What 
had been tried on a smaller scale before was more widely organized in 
relation to this congress. Although the International Study Group 
worked on the theme of the congress beforehand, regional study groups 
suggested by Dr. Peter Neubauer also stimulated research within the 
field, arranged meetings and prepared presentations. Before the 
official opening, a day was used for a meeting and discussion by the 
groups. Especially in Australia and New Zealand, multidisciplinary 
groups had been very active and worked with great success as was 
demonstrated by the many papers presented. Apparently it was not 
possible to repeat this success with regional study groups. Only a few 
were active during the following years and their work was incorporated 
in the program of the next International congress held in Dublin, 
Ireland in 1982 under the presidency of Dr. L. Hersov of England with 
Richard Lansdown of England as Secretary General. The organizing and 
programming committees succeeded in activating a great number of the 
participants in panel and group discussions, and workshops. In this 
way, the tradition which had been created at earlier meetings was 
continued. The theme of the congress: "Children in Turmoil -- 
Tomorrow's Parents," made it possible to explore many areas in the 
vast field where child and adolescent psychiatrists and colleagues 
from the allied professions struggle to prevent problems in one 
generation being carried over to succeeding generations. At the 
General Assembly, Dr. Colette Chiland of France was elected President 
and Dr. Philippe Jeammet of France Secretary-General. The Congress in 
1986 was held in Paris, France. The theme was "New Approaches to 
Infant, Child, Adolescent and Family Mental Health." The Congress was 
remarkable for the range of topics, the depth of discussion, and the 
remarkable organization that considered the full developmental range 
and broad scope of research and interventions. Volume 9 of the IACAPAP 
series _The_Child_in_the_Family_(Yale Press, 1992) was based on the 
Congress. In preparation for the 12th International Congress in Japan, 
a study group met the year before in Tokyo and then in several other 
cities in Japan. A series of discussions and symposia were held on 
major themes, including school refusal (the topic of a book in the 
IACAPAP series, published by Yale Press in 1990). The Congress was 
held in Kyoto, a uniquely beautiful and ancient city. The 
Congress continued the tradition of broad coverage of clinical 
approaches, research and advocacy, and was especially noteworthy for 
the exceptional hospitality and involvement of the Japanese hosts. 
Dr. Irving Philips, University of California, San Francisco, 
presided. Under his leadership, a special study group was held in 
Budapest, Hungary. In 1992, plans for the 13th Congress were 
initiated. Dr. Philips died tragically in 1992 and the presidency was 
assumed by Dr. Donald Cohen (Yale University, USA), a vice president. 
The 13th Congress will be held in San Francisco in July 1994, with the 
major theme of violence and the vulnerable child. This Congress will 
provide an opportunity for in-depth discussion of the impact of 
various types of trauma and violence on children, as well as the 
broader field of research, clinical care, and advocacy for children 
and adolescents. Many of the International organizations concerned 
with children and adolescents will offer symposia and research 
sessions, highlighting the role of IACAPAP as an International 
umbrella organization for national organizations concerned with 
infants, children and adolescents, and their families. 
IACAPAP 13th International Congress 
Office of continuing Medical Education 
Registration Office, Room LS-105 
University of California 
San Francisco, California 94143-0742 
VOICE Registration Information:  1-415-476-5808 
VOICE Program information:        1-415-476-4251 
E-MAIL Program information: 
FAX:                                               1-415-476-0318 
Submitted by: 
Jonathan D. Leavitt, M.D. 
Langley-Porter Psychiatric Institute 
401 Parnassus Avenue, Box CAS-0984 
San Francisco, CA 94143-0984 
VOICE (415) 476-7546 
FAX  (415) 476-7163 
SECTION 7: New Lists 
7.1 Clinical-Psychology 
To join send the message join clinical-psychology firstname lastname 
This list will provide an opportunity for the world-wide 
membership of APA's Division of Clinical Psychology (Division 12) to 
share ideas encompassing the broad area of clinical psychology. 
Discussion is welcomed regarding: 
clinical cases 
   (please pay careful attention to issues of confidentiality), 
research and treatment issues 
professional practice concerns 
and other related topics. 
The list will also provide an opportunity to communicate 
with other members regarding Division 12 issues. 
This list is just beginning, and much will depend on the development 
of a committed group of individuals willing to share their ideas and 
Postings to the List: 
All comments and suggestions to: 
Dr Bede Healey 
7.2 THE CARTER CENTER (President Jimmy Carter, Chairman) 
A new and powerful means has been implemented to assemble a global 
community of persons acting in faith and working on health.  Through a 
special partnership, the Interfaith Health Program of the Carter 
Center and the Congregational Nurse Program of Saint Francis Hospital 
of Evanston, Illinois, have created the "International Network for 
Interfaith Health Practices (IHP-NET)." to communicate not only by 
straight E-mail, but also by live colleague-colleague discussions on a 
variety of faith and health issues. 
Presently, IHP-NET features an electronic mailing list (E-mail) and an 
anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) site, including anonymous FTP 
by E-mail.  Other electronic interfaces are planned as persons gather 
online, including Gopher and World Wide Web.nally-based and public 
health practitioners; and university faculty and students. 
Members of IHP-NET will soon be able to download electronically 
archived texts of project best practices, newsmaker interviews and 
speeches, graphics, and computer utilities.  Participants may announce 
their symposia, training sessions, and other events; post newsletters 
or professional papers; share their thoughts and reflections with the 
world.  This network will allow peers to communicate not only by 
straight E-mail, but also by live colleague-colleague discussions on a 
variety of faith and health issues. 
Type this AND ONLY THIS statement in the BODY of a new E-mail message: 
subscribe IHP-NET (your Internet E-mail address> 
Send this message to: 
After you subscribe, you will automatically receive E-mail with more 
information about IHP-NET. 
Please note: 
1.  In the above statement, you must enter your INTERNET E-mail 
address, NOT your name. 
2.  A Bitnet address should be changed to an Internet form.  For 
example, convert: you@home.bitnet (Bitnet)  TO (Internet) 
3.  No subject is necessary for the message. 
SECTION 8: Advertisements from those Seeking Placements 
Submissions for this section should be sent to: 
Ian Pitchford (> 
SECTION 9: Calls for Research Collaborators 
Submissions for this section should be sent to: 
Ian Pitchford (> 
SECTION 10: Job Advertisements 
10.1 Clinical Director/Psychiatric Vocational Rehabilitation 
Sought to direct a psychiatric day treatment program serving clients who 
suffer from major mental illness. The qualified applicant will demonstrate 
the training, experience and expertise to develop a model vocational 
rehabilitation specialization at this site. She/he will also have an 
essential leadership role in the integration of vocational rehabilitation in 
a comprehensive community mental health system through an affiliation with 
The Cambridge Hospital, Department of Psychiatry. 
RESPONSIBILITIES: Supervision of all client treatment and rehabilitation; 
program development and evaluation; supervision of a multidisciplinary 
REQUIREMENTS: Master's or Ph.D. degree with licensure/certification in 
social work, psychology, rehabilitation counseling, or a closely related 
field. More than five years of clinical experience (minimum of two years in 
the treatment of major mental illness, one year in day treatment); two years 
of administrative experience. 
Competitive salary and benefits, with possibility of  Harvard Medical School 
faculty appointment. 
Please send letter outlining relevant experience, and current CV to: 
Executive Director, Comprehensive Community Day Treatment Programs, 650 
Concord Avenue (Rear), Cambridge, MA 02138