The InterPsych Newsletter 1(1)



Volume 1, Issue 1 (ISSN Reg. Pending)                        May,1994 
-------------------------------------                        -------- 
1.  The Purpose of This Newsletter                        (line  35:1) 
2.  Personal Contacts - How You Can Help                  (line  67:1) 
3.  Extensions to Facilities - Graphics, FTP, Preprints   (line 265:1) 
4.  Citation and Respect for Copyright                    (line 392:1) 
5.  Articles:                                             (line 522:1) 
             5.1  David DiLalla on 'assessment' 
             5.2  Thomas Joiner on 'depression' 
             5.3  Juan Carlos Garelli on 'attachment' 
             5.4  Greg Berns on Neural Networks and Psychiatry 
             5.5  Amber Robey on the BPD and psycho- 
                  pharmacology 'mini-discussions' 
             5.6  John Rathbun on False Memories Syndrome 
6.  Submissions from InterPsych subscribers              (line 1059:1) 
             6.1  Ivan Goldberg on PsyComNet 
7.  Readers' Letters                                     (line 1151:1) 
8.  Standards Required for Submissions to Discussions    (line 1162:1) 
9.  Calls for Research Collaborators                     (line 1261:1) 
10. Job Advertisements                                   (line 1269:1) 
1. The InterPsych Newsletter is posted to the psychiatry-superlist in 
order that all of those who are members of attachment, traumatic- 
stress, helplessness, psychiatry-assessment, depression, psychiatry- 
resources, and psychiatry will receive just one copy, no matter how 
many of the sub-groups they belong to; this will lend some cohesion to 
the "family" as a whole. We want everyone to be aware that they do 
belong to a wider forum. 
2. It will enable discussion of topics not strictly falling within 
the remit of any of the SIGs (special interest groups). We don't 
really want discussion about software, copyright etc on the 
individual groups. 
3. It is a way of ensuring that subscribers realize that their views 
are being taken account of. 
4. It will be an excellent medium to enable subscribers to express 
their vision of the future development of InterPsych, and 
suggestions as to how such development can be achieved. 
5. It can act as a bridge between the SIGs and the various 
disciplines they cover and thereby help to promote inter-disciplinary 
collaboration on research. This was the original thinking behind the 
setting up of 'psychiatry'. 
6. it will be a superb medium by which to express our excitement and 
enthusiasm for the potential of the Internet. 
The Board of Directors has decided to rename this group of lists 
'InterPsych'. Would you like to become the representative of 
InterPsych at your university/college/hospital? We have a promotional 
leaflet for you to download in Microsoft Word 5 format for the PC. It 
will then be your responsibility to approach academics, clinicians, 
and students at your site to encourage new members to join, and to 
enthuse about the potential of the Internet in general, and of 
InterPsych in particular, and to liaise with the Board about local 
developments, conferences, research projects, job vacancies, and 
anything else of general interest to the membership. 
Register your interest now! 
I would like to be InterPsych representative for this site: 
Return to Ian Pitchford ( 
          M A I L B A S E   A N D   I N T E R P S Y C H 
Mailbase is an electronic information service which allows 
groups to manage their own discussion topics (Mailbase lists) 
and associated files. 
The Mailbase service is run as part of the JANET (Joint 
Academic NETwork) Networked Information Services Project 
(NISP) based at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in the 
United Kingdom. 
InterPsych is a non-profit making, voluntary organization, 
established on Mailbase with the aim of promoting international 
scholarly collaboration on inter-disciplinary research efforts in the 
field of psychopathology. 
The network has over 1000 members throughout the world, 
including many leading academics, research scientists, and clinical 
sub-lists in this group: 
This list welcomes discussion on Bowlby-Ainsworth's theory of 
attachment. From theoretical and philosophical issues, to clinical 
or applied issues. Particular emphasis is given to socio-affective 
and defensive processes, and unconscious representations. 
To join send the message: join attachment firstname lastname 
Discussion of the delivery of mental health services to diverse 
cultures. Topics may include, cultural differences in views on 
mental disorders, culture-specific syndromes, collaboration 
between Western and traditional healers, and cultural variance 
in symptoms. 
To join send the message: join transcultural-psychology firstname 
This list is intended for those who wish to co-operate in the 
compilation of a resource guide to enable clinicians and academics 
in the areas of psychiatry and abnormal psychology to gain 
maximum benefit from the facilities available over the Internet. 
To join send the message: join psychiatry-resources firstname 
Many research findings and viewpoints in psychiatry are 
controversial, leaving a gulf between those pursuing radically 
different approaches to mental illness. This forum will act as a 
bridge between those taking a biomedical approach and those 
taking a psychodynamic, existential or beahaviourist approach. 
To join send the message: join psychiatry firstname lastname 
This forum exists for scholarly discussion of issues related 
to mood disorders in clinical and research settings. Integrative 
biological-psychological contributions are particularly welcome. 
Topics include causation, correlates, consequences, co-morbidity, 
treatment/prevention, etc. 
To join send the message: join depression firstname lastname 
Learned Helplessness and Explanatory Style was created to discuss 
the latest research on animals and humans, biological substratum, 
depression, anxiety, prevention, CAVE, politics, children, personal 
control, health, battering, bereavement, PTSD, sex differences, 
pessimism, work, heritability. 
To join send the message: join helplessness firstname lastname 
This list promotes the investigation, assessment, and treatment 
of the immediate and long-term psychosocial, biophysiological, 
and existential consequences of highly stressful (traumatic) 
events. Of special interest are efforts to identify a cure of 
PTSD (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder) 
To join send the message: join traumatic-stress firstname lastname 
This sublist focusses on research and clinical issues related 
to use of psychological tests (including traditional clinical 
instruments & normal personality measures) in psychiatry and 
clinical psychology. 
To join send the message: join psychiatry-assessment firstname 
The promotion and preservation of academic standards on 
InterPsych is the responsibility of the Board.The current 
members are: 
Charles Figley, PhD               Chair, Professor of 
                                  Psychosocial Stress, 
                                  Florida State University. 
Martin E.P.Seligman, PhD          Professor of Psychology, 
                                  University of Pennsylvania 
Edward Wakeman                    D.Phil Student, University of 
Thomas Joiner, PhD                Assistant Professor of 
                                  Psychiatry, University of Texas. 
David DiLalla, PhD                Assistant Professor of 
                                  Psychology, Southern Illinois 
                                  University at Carbondale. 
Edward Workman, EdD, MD           Assistant Professor of 
                                  Psychiatry, University of Virginia. 
Greg Berns, MD, PhD               Psychiatry Resident, University of 
Kirk Zimbelman, PhD               Clinical Psychologist, South 
                                  Dakota Human Services Center. 
Ian Pitchford                     Neuroscience Student, Department of 
                                  Biomedical Science, University of 
                                  Sheffield, Founder and co-ordinator 
                                  of InterPsych. 
InterPsych exists to provide a forum for scholarly and clinical 
discussion of all aspects of psychopathy. Individuals doing 
research, scholarship, or clinical work within this domain, 
broadly construed, are welcome. Faculty, graduate students, 
and undergraduate researchers are especially invited. 
The motto of InterPsych is 'There is someone wiser than 
any of us, and that is all of us.' Our hope is that, at the least, 
this forum will be entertaining and informative; at most, 
it may be a breeding ground for conceptual and theoretical 
innovation, and for establishment of cross-site, inter- 
disciplinary, empirical collaboration. 
All comments and suggestions to: 
Ian Pitchford ( 
The Mailbase International forum for the discussion and promotion of 
inter-disciplinary research in psychopathology. 
     We are currently developing a protocol by which individuals who 
     wish to include graphics along with their posts to the PSYCHIATRY 
     lists may do so with as much ease as possible. 
     Our goal is to make the procedure as fast and simple as possible 
     for both uploading users and downloading users. To this end, 
     rather than post ascii-encoded versions of graphics directly to 
     the lists (a procedure that will increase disk space requirements 
     substantially), we are planning a system by which individuals will 
     send and receive binary graphic files via anonymous FTP to the 
     MAILBASE computer. 
     Under the proposed system, individuals wishing to include a 
     graphic will upload it to a specified directory via FTP and 
     include a "pointer" to the file within their post to the list. 
     Users desiring to have a copy of the graphic will download it to 
     their own mainframe accounts via FTP. Depending on your mainframe 
     system, the file may then need to be transferred to a personal 
     computer for viewing. 
     The only difficult part in all of this is arriving at a "standard" 
     graphic format for use by the PSYCHIATRY Lists. The consensus of 
     the Academic Advisory Board is to avoid proprietary graphic 
     formats (e.g., Harvard Graphics, Corel) in favor of a general 
     format that can be read by most commercial and shareware graphics 
     viewers. For those without current access to the relevant graphics 
     programs, we will also include for download one or more shareware 
     graphics programs that will do the job. 
     At the present time, we are leaning toward the GIF format. Such 
     files will tend to be larger than some other available formats 
     (e.g., JPG), but it appears that GIFs can currently be read by a 
     wider variety of graphic programs. 
     Final decisions regarding formats have not yet been made, and 
     feedback from subscribers is welcome. In particular, users of MAC 
     platforms (or other major platforms) are urged to provide some 
     feedback regarding the best way to make files available to other- 
     than-IBM users (hopefully, without double posting of file 
     When everything is ready to go, a message will be posted to the 
     PSYCHIATRY-SUPERLIST and a USERS.DOC will be made available from 
     Comments or questions can be directed to David DiLalla at: 
                        Archives, FTP and Gopher 
By: Gordon Reid, Sobell Department of Neurophysiology, 
Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK 
               -        -        -       | tel +44 71 837 3611 ext 4186    | fax +44 71 813 3107 
Group Archives 
All the items posted to traumatic-stress (and the other lists) are 
archived by Mailbase, and are accessible to members and non-members 
of all PsychNet lists. This means that when you join, you can catch up 
on past discussions easily. It also means that it is a very public 
Anything sent to the group can be read by anyone. 
Apart from using the Mailbase e-mail commands (see your Mailbase 
User Card for details) there are several other facilities -  FTP 
(file retrieval), the Mailbase On-Line Service, the Mailbase Gopher 
Service and the Mailbase World Wide Web Server - which allow you to 
get access to the traumatic-stress archives. 
How to use the Mailbase Gopher 
The Mailbase Gopher is very convenient since it is menu-driven. You 
probably have the Gopher software on your home system - ask your 
system admin people - or if not, you can use a public Gopher by 
telnet. The closest public Gopher to Mailbase is at Bradford. To 
use it type: 
and when you are prompted "Login: " type: 
No password is necessary. 
Look for a menu item called "Other information services" (or similar; 
they vary slightly between different Gophers), then find the list of 
"UK Gopher Servers" (this may not be on the next menu on your system, 
but it should be easy to find). Choose the Mailbase Gopher. It will 
offer you its lists in alphabetical order; look for "traumatic-stress" 
(you can of course look at the archives of any Mailbase group this 
You are next offered the publicly available information. "Other files" 
contains the introduction and register of interests. "Mail archives" 
contains the postings to the group, one file for each month. After you 
look at a document, you will be asked if you want it to be sent by 
e-mail to you. 
More About Gophers 
If you haven't encountered Gophers yet, you might like to explore the 
other menu items, and also try searching for information with VERONICA 
(Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computer Archives; look 
on your menu, or if your Gopher doesn't have VERONICA, try the 
Bradford one). There's a goldmine of information there waiting to be 
found. Just burrow around. For more on Gophers and other Internet 
tools,look in books like "The Whole Internet User Guide and Catalog" 
by Ed Krol, and "The Internet For Dummies" (widely available). 
     Over the past few weeks, a number of individuals have 
     expressed opinions regarding the legal / copyright 
     status of material posted to the network. I have 
     attempted to summarize some of the major themes and, 
     along the way, suggest a few ideas / guidelines that 
     could be incorporated into the text file that 
     accompanies one's subscription to the -assessment list. 
     Feedback about these suggestions will be welcome. 
     COPYRIGHT: It appears from a legal perspective that 
     copyright resides with the copyright owner regardless 
     of whether the information is posted to the 'net, but 
     that the onus of responsibility for enforcing copyright 
     also falls on the owner. 
     PUBLIC VS. PUBLIC DOMAIN: A distinction was drawn 
     between information that is posted to the 'net (and 
     hence, Public) with the understanding that the posting 
     individual retains rights to the material AND 
     information that is posted to the net with the 
     understanding anyone may use it in any way (Public 
     Domain). Again, the onus of protecting one's rights 
     falls on the posting individual -- perhaps a difficult 
     A number of individuals stressed the importance of 
     including explicit statements regarding the author's 
     intention of how the material can be used. For example, 
     if an author does not wish for posted information to be 
     re-posted elswhere without permission, this should be 
     explicitly stated. Likewise, if the posting individual 
     wishes for information to be referenced in a particular 
     way (e.g., submitted manuscript, unpublished raw data) 
     this could be noted explicitly. 
     CITATION OF POSTED INFORMATION: Related to the above 
     issues is that of how one should acknowledge (for 
     example, in a journal article) a finding or idea 
     communicated by another individual via the 'net. There 
     seems to be some agreement that such citation is 
     appropriate, but the technology seems to be ahead of 
     the "rules" as embodied, e.g. in the publication manual 
     of the APA. 
     For ideas communicated via a message posted to a mail- 
     list, it appears that a citation of "Personal 
     Communication" is currently most appropriate, although 
     Dr. Milton Strauss, incoming editor of _Journal of 
     Abnormal Psychology_ has noted that these are more 
     "impersonal" communications given that they may lack 
     the collaborative quality of a personal interaction / 
     communication with a colleague. 
     Posted summaries of one's previously published (or in- 
     press) work seemingly cause no problem and should be 
     cited as such. 
     Posted summaries of one's work in progress could be 
     cited in one of at least three ways: 1) Unpublished 
     manuscript; 2) Manuscript submitted for publication; 3) 
     Unpublished raw data from study. 
     Again, any feedback about this summary of forgoing 
     discussion would be welcome. 
Prof. David DiLalla 
The following was sent to Ian Pitchford in response to an query 
regarding legal copyright status of electronic communication. 
(it is included here with Dr. Birds' permission!) 
)From Professor John Birds, Head of Department of Law, 
University of Sheffield: 
Basically copyright resides automatically in the author, and 
strictly it does not matter whether it is expressly claimed or not. 
So certainly within the UK there is no problem at all (apart from 
the usual potential one of detecting and proving an infringement - 
but that can exist if something is on paper as well as in electronic 
form). So while the information sent via any e-mail system becomes 
public, the author has the right to stop anyone else copying it. I 
will confess that the problem may be more acute if e-mail is sent 
outside this jurisdiction, although I believe that international 
conventions should protect the author's copyright - it is just that 
the problems of detection and enforcement are multiplied. 
Professor John Birds. 
The following, is also relevant to concerns re copyright. 
Subject: Copyright 
)From JRA: 
I am an editor, NOT a lawyer, but this question seems to raise three 
issues: copyright, public, and public domain.  Assuming your SIG is 
available to anyone interested in joining, anything you post will 
definitely become public.  It would be foolish to share important 
secrets on the Internet.  Copyrighted materials are made PUBLIC when 
they are published with a copyright notice, but that doesn't make 
them public domain.  Many copyrighted documents are available from 
Compuserve, and are identified with a copyright notice at the 
beginning. A document clearly identified as copyrighted with a strong 
notice at the beginning shouldn't be considered PUBLIC DOMAIN just 
because it is PUBLIC.  Don't post copyrighted material unless you 
own the right or have written permission from the copyright owner. 
Be sure to begin with a copyright notice and a strong warning 
to readers.  Unfortunately, some of us here in the United States have 
noticed that there is a large group of citizens who don't think laws 
apply to them.  In order for a copyright to work, the owner must be 
prepared to enforce his or her rights. My point here is that even if 
your research is protected by law, you must be prepared for the fact 
that some people break laws. As to how such work should be cited, be 
sure to include the author, date of posting or publishing (which 
should be in the copyright notice), and exactly where you found the 
document. Again, I am not an attorney, so you should check with an 
attorney before accepting my opinions as fact. 
                            John Ashcraft 
                            Editor, NERDC, University of Florida 
5.1     Dr David DiLalla on 'Psychiatry-Assessment' 
As of this writing, -Assessment has 131 members and has been 
steadily growing since its debut in mid-April. Traffic to date 
has been relatively light, focussing on clinical applications of 
the Five Factor Model (FFM) of Personality and more generally on 
issues of intellectual property / copyright / scholarly citation 
of network material. As with any discussion list, as the core 
number of "active posters" grows, traffic on the list will 
It is hoped that -Assessment will provide a forum for scholarly 
discussion of a broad range of topics related to research and 
clinical applications of psychological testing. Discussion of 
current research findings would be particularly desirable. List 
members are encouraged to initiate discussion threads by posting 
messages to the list that will stimulate further discourse on 
particular topics. Alternatively, suggestions for potential 
discussion could be forwarded to the list operators by sending 
5.2     Dr Thomas Joiner on 'Depression' 
The Depression SIG is now up and running, with a substantial 
number of members and and a reasonable amount of participation. 
Topics have included: 1) measurement/screening of depression with 
brief rating scales; 2) depressive personality disorder; 3) the 
relation between depression and learning disabilities in children and 
adolescents; 4) interpersonal aspects of depression.  Requests have 
been made for discussion of bipolar disorder.  Also,to date, the list 
has been psychologically-oriented; those with expertise in the biology 
of depression are encouraged to participate.  Treatment/prevention 
issues have also been under-represented.  Everyone, whatever their 
orientation,is encouraged to share recent research or thoughts with 
the group, as a way to stimulate discussion and introduce themselves. 
Thomas Joiner, Ph.D. 
Assistant Professor 
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston 
phone: 409-772-2419 
fax:   409-772-2885 
5.3     Dr Juan Carlos Garelli on 'Attachment' 
The Theory of Attachment has increasingly been unfolding in a 
conspicuously psychoanalysis-related way. However, it should be 
remembered that it emerged as an alternative to pscyhoanalysis as 
regards the understanding of the development and vicissitudes of 
man's socio-emotional life, either in health or ill-health. 
Bowlby decided to concentrate his efforts on an undebatable issue: 
mother-child separation. Systematic observation of distress brought 
about in children by separation from mother paved the way for the 
initial steps towards the discovery of attachment, a genetically 
preprogrammed behaviour selected "for" by Darwin's process of natural 
selection with a heavy support of analogous studies in ethology, the 
biological study of animal behaviour. Attachment turned out to be seen 
as a set of proximity-seeking behaviours which made offspring acquire 
differential survival fitness, as against solitary offspring, on 
account of their reducing mortality risk before reproductive age. Put 
in ethological terms, a juvenile phenotype vehicle prone to engage in 
social interactions with a closely related adult - i.e., mother- has a 
higher chance to reach reproductive age and hence perpetuate the 
replication of its genes, thus giving these proximity- seeking 
behaviours a reproductive edge. 
Seen in this light, attachment claims to be only an aspect of human 
personality development, it is only one of a number of social 
behaviours that are described in the contemporary available literature 
-sexual behaviour, another kind of social behaviour, is an example of 
the large repertoire of behaviours that still remain to be thoroughly 
studied. In other words, we are still a long way away from learning 
the very basics of human personality development. Moreover, it is 
particularly in this sense that the theory of attachment should prove 
a reliable model for future developments linking human personality 
research to modern science and the unended quest for a scientific 
psychology, that is, a theory whose conclusions are apt to be 
either proved or disproved. 
It would be a major achievement if psychologists devoted their 
efforts to field observations and multidisciplinary work, which proved 
so fertile in Bowlby's and Ainsworth's contributions. 
Attachment Research Center                    E-mail: 
Dr. Juan Carlos Garelli                       Tel.: +54-1 812 5521 
Juncal 1966, 6B,                              Fax: +54-1 812 5432 
1116 Buenos Aires, Argentina 
5.4     Dr Greg Berns on Neural Networks and Psychiatry 
                   Gregory S. Berns, MD/PhD 
Summary:  This article briefly describes neural networks and some 
recent applications to understand psychiatric disease. 
What is a neural network? 
The term neural network has come to describe a large class of 
computational techniques loosely based on the idea of parallel 
processing. The brain processes information massively in parallel, 
that is, billions of operations occur simultaneously throughout the 
brain, which collectively form our conscious and unconscious thought 
processes as well as implement motor actions, regulate the autonomic 
system, etc.  This is in stark contrast to computer programs, which 
typically implement operations one after another, that is serially. 
The idea of neural networks is to approach problems more like the 
brain does, and in so doing, gain some understanding of how 
the brain actually works. 
In a generic neural network, one constructs a set of simulated 
neurons, typically in computer memory.  Each neuron can contact, or 
form synapses, with any other neuron.  Each neuron receives many 
inputs, and depending on the properties assigned to it, does some type 
of simple transformation of the inputs, and sends this result to all 
the other neurons with which it has synapses.  The difficult part is 
deciding upon the physical architecture of how to set up the 
interconnections so that the network can do something interesting. 
Fortunately, there are ways to loosely set up a design and allow 
the network to learn. By learning, I mean modifying connections 
based on experience.  This is presumably what the brain does at some 
A typical application, although in actuality quite complicated, would 
be to learn faces.  The real brain has no difficulty recognizing 
faces, even though one never sees a face in exactly the same 
orientation or configuration.  One way to simulate this is to take a 
bunch of images of faces from different angles and with different 
expressions and let a network learn.  So with digital images, each 
image is actually composed of several thousand picture elements 
(pixels), each of which could represent a single neuron, say 
either in the retina or visual cortex.  One could have another layer 
of neurons with which the first layer makes synapses.  This second 
layer could then project to yet a third layer, probably much smaller, 
in which the neurons would encode high order features, perhaps 
noseness, eyeness, etc.  Some combination of features should uniquely 
identify each face.  The network would learn by presenting it with 
many images and telling it who each face belonged to, and 
allowing the network to modify synapses so that ultimately, when 
presented with an image, it would identify the person.  This is an 
example of supervised learning -- it is taught the identification of 
each face by a supervisor (eg the programmer).  This is probably not 
how the brain actually works because one part of the brain can't teach 
another part if no part has learned it in the first place.  So there 
are other types of network algorithms that use unsupervised 
learning.  These often depend on detailed anatomical and 
physiological information about the real brain. 
Psychiatric Applications 
There have been few attempts in applying neural network techniques to 
psychiatric illness.  Not surprisingly, most of the models that have 
been proposed have been aimed at the Holy Grail of psychiatry: 
schizophrenia. Ralph Hoffman used an early type of neural net, called 
a Hopfield net, that can store something like memories.  Although it 
is a decidedly nonphysiological model of memory, it does have the 
ability to reconstruct previously seen patterns from only fragments of 
them.  Hoffman used this model to store several image patterns, and 
then pruned away synapses.  He based this idea on the finding of 
hypofrontality in schizophrenia, reasoning that that there is a loss 
of neurons in the frontal lobes.  In the model he found that 
overpruning of synapses led to fragmentation of the memory patterns, 
so rather than reconstructing an original pattern when given a piece 
of it, the network gave fragments of several patterns.  He also found 
that parasitic foci developed if the model was severely pruned. 
These parasitic foci were seen as patches in the network that 
repeatedly showed the same pattern of activity, yet this activity was 
not part of any pattern that was originally presented.  He interpreted 
these foci as areas of cortex, that in essence, have a mind of their 
own (not his words).  Although this is a very seductive idea, 
the Hopfield net is a very poor model of how the brain works and at 
the neuron level, runs counter to most physiological data. 
Cohen and Servan-Schreiber proposed a slightly more realistic model, 
one which modeled the effect of a real neurotransmitter -- dopamine. 
Their basic hypothesis is that one function of dopamine in the brain 
is to increase the gain of neurons.  Increasing the gain simply 
means enhancing the ability of a neuron to separate a real signal from 
noise.  They modeled schizophrenia as a dopamine deficit and trained a 
network on a version of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT).  The 
CPT requires a person to identify a specific symbol within a 
continuous stream of other symbols.  After training a network 
on this task, and then decreasing the gain of the individual neurons, 
they found that the network made errors similar to those seen in 
schizophrenia. Although this is a somewhat more physiological model of 
the brain than Hoffman's, it still relied on a supervised method of 
learning, which one is hard-pressed to find in the brain. 
Nevertheless, the Cohen/Servan-Schreiber model is consistent with a 
large body of data regarding the function of dopamine and its role in 
Future Directions 
There is presently an explosion of information about the brain at all 
levels from genes to behavior.  We are learning a great deal about 
both the very small parts of the brain, neurons, and the very large 
parts, behavior.  How is one to bridge the gulf between what an 
individual neuron does and what the brain does?  Computer modeling may 
provide a means to this understanding. There are now detailed models 
of how collections of hundreds of neurons behave, how parts of the 
thalamus work, how visual images are processed, all of which would be 
impossible without computer simulation.  There are even silicon 
neurons and silicon retinas.  I predict that as we learn more of the 
detailed workings of the brain, the computer will become the only way 
in which to join all the pieces together.  Does this mean the end of 
psychotherapy as biological psychiatry asserts its dominance? 
Definitely not. As has become abundantly clear, the physical structure 
of the brain is modifiable by experience. As this process of synaptic 
change becomes better understood, it should be possible to design 
sensory stimuli that specifically target certain areas of the brain. 
It may be that psychotherapy, in the form of words, images, sounds, 
etc will become a far more specific way of altering neurotransmitters 
than our present pharmacopoeia. 
Cohen JD and Servan-Schreiber D:  Context, cortex, and dopamine: a 
connectionist approach to behavior and biology in schizophrenia. 
Psychol Rev 99:45-77, 1992. 
Cohen JD and Servan-Schreiber D:  A theory of dopamine function and 
its role in cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.  Schiz Bull 19:85- 
104, 1993. 
Churchland PS and Sejnowski TJ:  The Computational Brain.  MIT Press, 
Cambridge,  1992. 
Crick F:  The Astonishing Hypothesis.  The Scientific Search for the 
Soul. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1994. 
Crick F and Mitchison G:  REM sleep and neural nets.  J Mind & Behav 
7:229[99]-250[120], 1986. 
Dehaene S and Changeux JP:  The Wisconsin card sorting test: 
theoretical analysis and modeling in a neuronal network.  Cerebral 
Cortex 1:62- 79, 1991. 
Hoffman RE and Dobscha SK:  Cortical pruning and the development of 
schizophrenia: a computer model.  Schiz Bull 15:477-490, 1989. 
Hoffman RE and McGlashan TH:  Parallel distributed processing and the 
emergence of schizophrenic symptoms.  Schiz Bull 19:119-140, 1993. 
Weinberger DR:  A connectionist approach to the prefrontal cortex.  J 
Neuropsych 5:241-253, 1993. 
5.5     Amber Robey on 'BPD' and 'Psychopharmacology' 
I would like to make list members aware that there are currently 
two very interesting discussion groups existing in the Psychiatry 
forum. The first is the Borderline Personality Disorder 
Discussion groups where all facets of this diagnosis are examined 
and discussed, including inpatient care, Emergency Room 
treatment, suicidal and self-harming behaviours etcetera. 
This group is open to any interested persons...questions are welcome. 
The facilitator of this group is Amber Robey, a research 
associate at the University of Calgary. 
The Psychopharmacology Discussion involves the discussion of 
different drugs, and their administration.  Different disorders are 
discussed in the context of types of drugs used for specific 
behavioural concerns. This group is facilitated by Ivan Goldberg M.D. 
and co-facilitated by Amber Robey. 
5.6     Dr John Rathbun on False Memories Syndrome 
With regard to "False Memories Syndrome", we've had a vigorous 
discussion of that issue here on CompuServe Medsig 16. I'll append a 
file I uploaded on the subject: 
I want to share with you some excerpts from a recent lecture on 
recovered memories by Richard J. Lawlor, J.D. Ph.D., a forensic 
psychologist at the Riley Child Psychiatry Center of the Indiana 
University Medical Center. Dr.Lawlor claims considerable experience 
giving expert testimony in this area. His remarks seemed informed, 
temperate, and well-balanced. A considerable bibliography was made 
available, which I plan to upload as soon as it has been digitized. 
The following are my summarizations of Dr. Lawlor's key points. I 
believe I have fairly represented his position, but he has not 
reviewed or approved my summary. 
1. Little accurate memory can be recovered from children before age 3. 
Children aged 3 - 4 years can remember about two-thirds as well as 
adults, but suggestions from adults degrade their memories remarkably. 
By age 5 - 6, children's memories are more resistant to confusion. 
More intelligent children tend to have more reliable memory function. 
2. In general, the earliest and most spontaneous reports of a given 
incident are the most credible. Later reports and those elicited by 
repeated questioning are likely to be progressively unreliable. 
3. Simply questioning children repeatedly about an incident that 
didn't happen leads to elaborate false memories in a large percentage 
of children. 
4. Young children do tell incredibly detailed false stories. 
5. "Repression" is a useful concept in clinical settings but has no 
acceptable basis in scientific research that would justify its use in 
forensic settings. 
6. There are no reliable criteria for discriminating accuracy of 
memories, other than corroboration by other witnesses or by physical 
evidence. The criteria commonly used by therapists to discriminate 
false memories from true ones have been demonstrated to be ineffective 
in controlled experiments. 
7. Hypnosis increases the inaccuracy of memories. Any use of hypnosis 
in a forensic matter makes subsequent testimony valueless. 
8. It doesn't pay to investigate ambiguous statements by children. 
Unambiguous and spontaneous accusations by children should always be 
promptly reported to the authorities. Treat any such child as you 
would a crime scene: don't mess about with the evidence. 
9. The next hot topic in this area will be Parental Alienation 
Syndrome. This situation is alleged to arise when a child and the 
custodial parent conspire to defame a non-custodial parent. Negative 
attitudes toward the non-custodial parent by the custodial parent and 
isolation of the child from the non-custodial parent are prerequisites 
of this phenomenon. 
10. Therapists who encourage their patients to take action against 
alleged perpetrators based on memories recovered during therapy put 
themselves in serious jeopardy in the current legal climate. 
I'm not in a position to comment on the validity of Dr. Lawlor's 
opinions, but would be interested to hear what others think of them. 
His use of the word "repression" in this context was the one area in 
which I disagreed with him. I believe the term was introduced in the 
context of an ego defense against id impulses unacceptable to the 
superego, often leading to the formation of a "screen memory" that 
simultaneously gratifies the forbidden wish while projecting the 
responsibility. For example, it may be more comfortable to recall "my 
father raped me" than "I wanted to take my mother's place in father's 
affections". "Dissociation", by contrast, is proposed as a mechanism 
for the active forgetting of actual trauma: "My father raped me but 
that's too painful to remember now." Thus, repression leads to 
remembering what didn't happen and dissociation leads to forgetting 
what did happen. The problem with this distinction in practical terms 
is that we first have to know what really happened before we can 
decide whether a given case of memory distortion represents repression 
or dissociation. According to Dr. Lawlor (and my own experience has 
largely confirmed this) it may be downright impossible in any 
individual case to determine what really happened. And if it's 
impossible in many individual cases, then anybody who claims that a 
whole class of memories afflicting hundreds of patients is always 
either true or false would seem to be in a precarious position. 
In my view, an important dilemma remains for the therapist interested 
in treating cases where dissociation is an issue. The bottom line 
appears to be that we often CAN'T KNOW what happened, so we have to 
support the patient's attempt at self-exploration and discourage 
premature attempts at closure, however badly we and the patient might 
yearn for this. 
Bottoms, B.L., Shaver, P.R., & Goodman, G.S. (1991, August). 
Profile of Ritualistic and Relation-Related Abuse Allegation 
Reported to Clinical Psychologists in the United States.  Paper 
presented at the 99th Annual Convention of the American 
Psychological Association, San Francisco. 
Briere, J. (1992).  Studying Delayed Memories of Childhood 
Sexual Abuse.  The Advisor (Publication of the American 
Professional Society on the Abuse of Children), 5, 17-18. 
Howe, M.L., & Courage, M.L. (1993).  On Resolving the enigma 
of Infantile Amnesia.  Psychological Bulletin, 113, 305-327. 
Loftus, E.F. & Coan, D. (in press).  The construction of 
Childhood Memories.  In D. Peters (Ed.) The Child Witness in 
Context: Cognitive, Social and Legal Perspectives.  New York: 
Loftus, E. F., Polonsky, S., & Fullilove, M.T. (1993). 
Memories of Childhood Abuse:  Remembering and Repressing. 
Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington and Columbia 
University School of Public Health. 
Gardner, R.A. (1991).  Sex Abuse Hysteria: Salem Witch Trials 
Revisited.  Cresskill, N.J.: Creative Therapeutics. 
Gardner, R.A. (1992).  The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A 
Guide for Mental Health and Legal Professionals.  Cresskill, N.J.: 
Creative Therapeutics. 
Gardner, R.A. (1992).  True and False Accusations of Child Sex 
Abuse.  Cresskill, N.J.: Creative Therapeutics. 
Binet, A.  (1900).  La Suggestibilite.  Paris: Schleicher Frers. 
Dale, P.S., Loftus, E.F., & Rathbun, L. (1978).  The Influence of 
the Form of the Question on the Eye Witness Testimony of Preschool 
Children.  Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 7, 269-277. 
Davidson, D. (1991, April)  Children's Recognitions and Recall 
Memory for Typical and Atypical Actions in Script-Based Stories. 
Paper resented at the Biannual Meeting of the Society for Research 
in Child Development, Seattle, WA. 
Doris, J.  (1991)  The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections. 
Washington, D.C.;  American Psychological Association. 
Ervin-Tripp, S. (1978). "Wait for Me, Rollerskate!" in S. Ervin- 
Tripp & C. Mitchell-Kernan (Eds.), Child Discourse (pp. 165-188). 
San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 
Flavell, J.H., Flavell, E., & Green, F.L. (1987).  Young Children's 
Knowledge About the Apparent-Real and Pretend-Real Distinctions. 
Developmental Psychology, 23, 816-822. 
Freud, S. (1966).  New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis.  In 
J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The Standard Edition of the Complete 
Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 15-16).  London: Hogarth 
Press. (Original work published 1933). 
Garbarino, J., & Stott, F.M. (1989) What Children Can Tell Us. San 
Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 
Gardner, R.  (1985), Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody 
Litigation.  Academy Forum (a publication of the American Academy 
of Psychoanalysis), 29 (2): 3-7. 
Gardner, R. (1987).  The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the 
Differentiation Between Fabricated and Genuine Child Sex Abuse. 
Cresskill, N.J.: Creative Therapeutics. 
Gardner, R. (1992).  The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Guide for 
Mental Health and Legal Professionals.  Cresskill, N.J.:  Creative 
Garvey, C. (1984).  Children's Talk.  Cambridge, N.A.:  Harvard 
University Press. 
Goodman, G.S., Harschman, J.E., Hepps, D., & Rudy, L. (1991). 
Children's Memory for Stressful Events.  Merrell Palmer Quarterly, 
37, 109-158. 
Harris, P., Brown, E., Marriott, C., Whittall, S., & Harmer, S. 
(1991).  Monsters, Ghosts and Witches: Testing the Limits of 
Fantasy-Reality Distinction in Young Children.  British Journal of 
Developmental Psychology, 9, 105-123. 
Haugard, J., & Repucci, N.D., (1992).  Children and the Truth.  In 
S. J. Ceci, M. Leichtman, & M. Putnick (Eds.), Social and Cognitive 
Factors in Early Deception.  (pp.29-46).  Hillsdale, N.J.: 
Hudson, J., & Nelson, K. (1986). Repeated Encounters of a Similar 
Kind: Effects of Familiarity on Children's Autobiography Memory. 
Cognitive Development, 1, 253-271. 
Hughes, M. & Grieve, R. (1980).  On Asking Children Bizarre 
Questions.  First Language, 1, 149-160. 
Hurlock, E. (1930).  Suggestibility in Children.  Journal of 
Genetic Psychology, 37, 59-74. 
Kramer, T., Buckhout, R., Fox, P., Widman, E., & Tusche, B. (1991). 
Effects of Stress Cognitive Psychology, 5, 483-488. 
Lawlor, R.J. (1993).  Child Custody and Visitation: a psychological 
perspective and review of the research literature.  In: Family Law: 
An In-Depth Analysis of Selected Issues. Proceedings of the 
Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana Continuing Legal Education Forum. 
Leekam, S. (1992).  Believing and Deceiving:  Steps to Becoming a 
Good Liar.  In S.J. Ceci, M. Leichtman, & Putnik (Eds.), Social and 
Cognitive Factors in Early Deception.  (pp. 47-62). Hillsdale, 
N.J.: Earlbum. 
Linton, M. (1982). Transformation of Memory in Everyday Life.  In 
U. Neisser (Ed.), Memory Observed: Remembering in Natural Contexts 
(pp. 77-91).  New York: W.H. Freeman. 
Lipmann, O. (1911).  Pedagogical Psychology of Report.  Journal of 
Educational Psychology, 2, 253-261. 
McCloskey, M.M. & Zaragoza, M. (1985).  Misleading Post Event 
Information and Memory for Events: Arguments and Evidence Against 
the Memory Impairment Hypothesis.  Journal of Experimental 
Psychology: General, 114, 1-16. 
Nelson, K., & Gruendel, J. (1979). At Morning It's Lunch Time: A 
scriptal view of children's dialogues.  Discourse Processes,2, 73- 
Peters, D.P.  (1991a).  The Influence of Stress and Arousal on the 
Child Witness.  In J.L. Doris (Ed.) The Suggestibility of 
Children's Recollections (pp. 60-76). Washington, D.C.: American 
Psychological Association. 
Peters, D.P. (1991b).  Commentary: Response to 
Goodman.  In J.L. Doris (Ed.), The suggestibility of Children's 
Recollections (pp.86-91).  Washington, D.C.: American Psychological 
Rudy, L.L. & Goodman, G.S. (1991).  Effects of Participation on 
Children's Reports: Implications for Children's Testimony. 
Developmental Psychology, 27, 527-538. 
Siegel, M., Waters, L., & Dinwiddy, L. (1988).  Misleading 
Children: Causal Attributions for Inconsistency Under Repeated 
Questioning.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 45, 438- 
Dr. John Rathbun (73162.3513@CompuServe.Com) 
This section will be reserved for anyone wishing to submit an article 
either on the Internet and its potential, or on any matter relevant to 
the sub-groups of InterPsych which requires a more considered, in 
depth treatment. 
Submissions should be sent to Ian Pitchford 
6.1     Dr Ivan Goldberg on PsyComNet 
Eight years ago I founded an organization known as PsyComNet.  Since 
then, PsyComNet has been holding been holding three real-time 
interactive on-line conferences each week.  On Tuesdays and Thursdays 
we have clinically oriented conferences on psychotherapy, 
psychopharmacology, child and adolescent psychopathology, and 
neuropsychology.  Sunday nights we meetfor Staff Lounge an informal 
gathering of members with no agenda.  At the present time PsyComNet 
uses the facilities of GEnie, a telecommunications servicer that in 
many ways parallels Compuserve. Attached is our May schedule so you 
can get some idea of our activities. 
If you ever think that InterPsych will be getting into real-time 
conferencing using the IRC facilities of Internet, I would be 
interested in helping to establish this activity. 
Ivan Goldberg, MD ( 
N.Y. Psychopharmacologic Inst. 
1346 Lexington Ave. NYC 10128 
Voice: +1 212 876-7800  Fax: +1 212 737-0473 
                         P s y C o m N e t 
                            M a y    9 4 
Sunday      May 1     Staff Lounge: Stop in for some good 
Tuesday     May 3     Evidence Based Medicine: 
                      Willie Yee 
                      Validity of the diagnosis of adult A.D.D. 
Thursday    May 5     Psychopharmacology / Biological Psychiatry: 
                      Ivan Goldberg 
                      Pharmacotherapy of personality disorders 
Sunday      May 8     Staff  Lounge: Stop in for some good 
Tuesday     May 10    Psychotherapy: 
                      Vance Fitzgerald 
                      Do men and women respond similarly to cognitive- 
                      behavior therapy 
Thursday    May 12    Neuropsychology: 
                      Larry Jasper 
                      Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe syndromes 
Sunday      May 15    Staff Lounge: Stop in for some good 
Tuesday     May 17    Child / Adolescent Psychopathology: 
                      Joe Nieder 
                      Methamphetamine in child psychiatry. 
Thursday    May 19    Psychopharmacology / Biological Psychiatry: 
                      Ivan Goldberg 
                      Pharmacotherapy of personality disorders. 
Sunday      May 22    Staff Lounge: Stop in for some good 
Tuesday     May 24    Psychotherapy: 
                      Vance Fitzgerald 
                      Do men and women respond similarly to cognitive- 
                      behavior therapy. 
Thursday    May 26    Neuropsychology: 
                      Larry Jasper 
                      Frontal lobe syndromes. 
Sunday      May 29    Staff Lounge: Stop in for some good 
Tuesday     May 31    TO  BE  ANNOUNCED. 
Conferences start at 9:00 PM Eastern Time in Room 2 of GEnie's Medical 
InterPsych subscribers are cordially invited to send their comments 
and suggestions for inclusion in this section. Letters should be 
addressed to Ian Pitchford ( 
Wherever possible submissions to the InterPsych should address 
specific hypotheses and the supporting research evidence. Normal 
standards of academic citation are expected. This section is the 
InterPsych guide to citing references which, although it contains only 
routine information already familiar to all of you, should constantly 
be born in mind when composing your contribution(s): 
A Guide to Citing References: 
The process of citing references consists of two interrelated parts: 
        a). CITING - the way a writer refers from the text to the 
            sources used (i.e. the reference) 
        b). REFERENCING - a bibliographic description of each source. 
            Put simply, this means a consistent description of the 
            elements needed to identify a source, such as author, 
            title, publisher, date etc. 
There are two internationally recognized citation/reference systems - 
name and date system (also known as the Harvard System) and the 
Numeric system. 
We recommend the Harvard system because it is easy to use. 
Why Bother to Cite References? 
1. To acknowledge debts to other writers. 
2. To demonstrate the body of knowledge upon which your research is 
3. To enable all those who read your work to locate your sources 
The Harvard System 
This is the most straightforward way of citing references, because 
all you need to do is mention the author and date of publication: 
        e.g. Jones (1961), Andrews (1982) 
The person reading your submission can then easily locate the full 
description of the item you have cited by going to the alphabetical 
list of references (or bibliography) you have provided at the end. 
Points to Note 
You may need to cite more than one work by the same author published 
in the same year. These can be identified by addding letters after 
dates e.g. Jones (1961a) Jones (1961b). 
If you are giving exact quotations for other works you should 
identify the page numbers e.g. Jones (1961, p.28). 
COPYRIGHT David Fisher, The Nottingham Trent University, 1993 
REFERENCES (Kindly supplied by Syvia Caras ( 
  TITLE:      Electronic style : a guide to citing electronic 
  AUTHOR:     Li, Xia, 1964- 
              Crane, Nancy. 
  PUBL.:      Westport : Meckler, 
  DATE:       1993 
  SUBJECT:    Bibliographical citations 
              Data bases--Bibliography--Methodology. 
              Databases, Bibliographic 
              Databases, Factual 
              Online Systems 
  ISBN:       088736909X (acid free paper) : 
  RID #:      ocm28547031      (This is not a call number) 
  CONTENTS:   Includes bibliographical references (p. 56) and index. 
              Organization and use of this guide -- Full-text 
                  individual works, books, monographs or full-length 
works -- 
                  Full-text databases: periodicals -- Full-text 
                  other sources -- Bibliographic databases -- 
                  conferences (Interest Groups) or bulletin board 
                  (BBS) -- Electronic mail (personal) -- Computer 
programs -- 
                  Reference citations in text -- Basic availability 
                  for commonly used electronic information sources. 
                  FORMAT:     xi, 65 p. ; 23 cm. 
This section is reserved for requests from those seeking 
collaborators on research projects. All submissions should be sent to 
Ian Pitchford ( 
This section of the InterPsych Newsletter is specifically for job 
advertisements and advertisements from those seeking placements.