Research Publications on Social Support

(Update from 01.12.2008)

Department of Health Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

For psychometric scales see

Boehmer, S., Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Coping and quality of life after tumor surgery: Personal and social resources promote different domains of quality of life. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 20, 61-75.

Burke, R. J., Greenglass, E. R., & Schwarzer, R. (1996). Predicting teacher burnout over time: Effects of work stress, social support, and self-doubts on burnout and its consequences. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping: An International Journal, 9, 261-275.

Jerusalem, M., Hahn, A., & Schwarzer, R. (1996). Social bonding and loneliness after network disruption: A longitudinal study of East German refugees. Social Indicators Research, 38, 229-245.

Klauer, T., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Soziale Unterstützung: Neue Wege in der Forschung [Social support: New paths of research]. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, 15, 141-142.

Klauer, T., & Schwarzer, R. (2001). Soziale Unterstützung und Depression [Social support and depression]. Verhaltenstherapie und Verhaltensmedizin.Themenheft: Soziales Netz und psychische Störungen, 22, 333-352.

Knoll, N., Burkert, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Reciprocal support provision: Personality as a moderator? European Journal of Personality, 20, 217-236.

Knoll, N., Schulz, U., Schwarzer, R., & Rosemeier, H. P. (2006). Provider's appraisal detection bias and the efficacy of received support in medical students preparing for an exam. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 599-615.

Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Gender and age differences in social support: A study on East German refugees. In G. Weidner, M. Kopp, & M. Kristenson (Eds.), Heart disease: Environment, stress, and gender. NATO Science Series, Series I: Life and Behavioural Sciences, Vol. 327 (pp. 198-210). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Knoll, N, & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Soziale Unterstützung [Social support]. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Series X, Vol. 1: Gesundheitspsychologie  (pp. 333-349). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.

Knoll, N., Schwarzer, R., Pfüller, B., & Kienle, R. (2007). Transmission of depressive symptoms in couples undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. European Psychologist, 14, 7-17.

Leppin, A., & Schwarzer, R. (1997). Sozialer Rückhalt, Krankheit und Gesundheitsverhalten [Social support, illness, and health behavior]. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Gesundheitspsychologie. Ein Lehrbuch (pp. 349-373). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.

Luszczynska, A., Boehmer, S., Knoll, N., Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Emotional support for men and women with cancer: Do patients receive what their partners provide? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 156-163.

Luszczynska, A., Gerstorf, D., Boehmer, S., Knoll, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Patients' coping profiles and partners' support provision. Psychology and Health, 22, 749-764.

Luszczynska, A., Kowalska, M., Mazurkiewicz, M., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Berlinskie Skale Wsparcia Spolecznego (BSSS). Wyniki wstepnych badan nad adaptacja skal i ich wlasnosciami psychometrycznymi [Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS): Polish version of BSSS and preliminary results on its psychometric properties]. Studia Psychologiczne, 44(3), 17-27.

Luszczynska, A., Mohamed, N. E., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Self-efficacy and social support predict benefit finding 12 months after cancer surgery: The mediating role of coping strategies. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 10, 365-375.


Schröder, K. E. E., Schwarzer, R., & Endler, N. S. (1997). Predicting cardiac patients’ quality of life from the characteristics of their spouses. Journal of Health Psychology, 2(2), 231-244. 

Schröder, K. E. E., Schwarzer, R., & Konertz, W. (1998). Coping as a mediator in recovery from cardiac surgery. Psychology & Health., 13(1), 83-97.

Schröder, K. E. E., & Schwarzer, R. (2001). Do partners' personality resources add to the prediction of patients' coping and quality of life? Psychology & Health, 16(2), 139-159.

Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2003). Soziale Unterstützung bei der Krankheitsbewältigung. Die Berliner Social Support Skalen (BSSS) [Social support in coping with illness: The Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS)]. Diagnostica, 49, 73-82.

Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Long-term effects of spousal support on coping with cancer after surgery. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 716-732.

Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Partnerschaftliche Bewältigung einer Krebserkrankung [Dyadic coping with cancer]. In P. Buchwald, S. E. Hobfoll & C. Schwarzer (Eds.), Stress gemeinsam bewältigen (pp. 121-138). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.

Schwarzer, R., Dunkel-Schetter, C., & Kemeny, M. (1994). The multidimensional nature of received social support in gay men at risk of HIV infection and AIDS. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 319-339.

Schwarzer, R., & Gutiérrez-Doña, B. (2005). More spousal support for men than for women: A comparison of sources and types of support. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 52, 523-532.

Schwarzer, R., Hahn, A., & Jerusalem, M. (1993). Negative affect in East German migrants: Longitudinal effects of unemployment and social support. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 6, 57-69.

Schwarzer, R., Hahn, A., & Schröder, H. (1994). Social integration and social support in a life crisis: Effects of macrosocial change in East Germany. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 685-706.

Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, M., & Hahn, A. (1994). Unemployment, social support and health complaints: A longitudinal study of stress in East German refugees. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 4, 31-45.

Schwarzer, R., & Knoll, N. (2007). Functional roles of social support within the stress and coping process: A theoretical and empirical overview. International Journal of Psychology, 42, 243-252.

Schwarzer, R., Knoll, N., & Rieckmann, N. (2004). Social support. In A. Kaptein & J. Weinman (Eds.), Health Psychology (pp. 158-182). Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1988). Social support: The many faces of helpful social interactions. International Journal of Educational Research, 2, 333-345.

Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1989). Social support and health: A meta-analysis. Psychology & Health: An International Journal, 3, 1-15.

Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1989). Sozialer Rückhalt und Gesundheit: Eine Meta-Analyse [Social support and health: A meta-analysis]. Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1991). Social support and health: A theoretical and empirical overview. Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 8, 99-127.

Schwarzer, R., & Rieckmann, N. (2002). Social support, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. In G. Weidner, M. S. Kopp, & M. Kristenson (Eds.), Heart disease: Environment, stress, and gender. NATO Science Series, Series I: Life and Behavioural Sciences (Vol. 327, pp. 185-197). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Schwarzer, R., & Schröder, K. (1997). Effects of self-efficacy and social support on postsurgical recovery of heart patients. Irish Journal of Psychology, 18, 88-103.

Schwarzer, R., & Schröder, K.E.E. (1997). Social and personal coping resources as predictors of quality of life in cardiac patients. European Review of Applied Psychology, 47, 131-136.

Schwarzer, R., Schröder, K., & Schröder, H. (1994). Alcohol consumption in a time of macrosocial stress: Migration, social isolation, and anger as risk factors. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping. An International Journal, 7, 173-184.

Schwarzer, R., Taubert, S., & Schulz, U. (2002). Soziale Integration, Gesundheit und Lebenserwartung [Social integration, health and life expectancy]. Berichte aus den Sitzungen der Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften e.V., 20/3. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


Schwarzer, R., & Weiner, B. (1990). Die Wirkung von Kontrollierbarkeit und Bewälti­gungsverhalten auf Emotionen und soziale Unterstützung [The effects of controllability and coping on emotions and social support]. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsy­chologie, 21, 118-125.

Schwarzer, R., & Weiner, B. (1991). Stigma controllability and coping as predictors of emotions and social support. Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 8, 133-140.