iStock_000004996552XSenior.jpg (180762 Byte)



Perceived Autonomy in Old Age


Ralf Schwarzer 2008

.    I live by my own choices now that I am old.

2.  I make my own decisions and don’t need others to protect me.

3.  I organize my life according to my own ideas.

4.  I cope with my daily life without outside help.

  1 – not at all true 2 – rather not true 3 – somewhat true 4 – definitely true                                       Cronbach's alpha =.91

Warner, L.M., Ziegelmann, J. P., Schüz, B., Wurm, S., Tesch-Römer, C., & Schwarzer, R. (2011). Maintaining autonomy despite multimorbidity: Self-efficacy and the two faces of social support. European Journal of Ageing. doi: 10.1007/s10433-011-0176-6